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dc.contributor.authorWood, Alex Men_UK
dc.contributor.authorBoyce, Christopher Jen_UK
dc.contributor.authorMoore, Simon Cen_UK
dc.contributor.authorBrown, Gordon D Aen_UK
dc.description.abstractBackground: This paper presents a new psychological model of why low income increases risk of mental distress. Consistent with evolutionary perspectives on disorder, income was predicted to relate to mental distress only through acting as an indirect proxy for social rank. Methods: Participants were part of a longitudinal cohort sample of 30,000 people who were representative of the British population and who completed measures annually for up to 17 years. Mental distress was assessed via the General Health Questionnaire which measures anxiety, depression, and general functioning. Results: Both income and the rank of the income within the region (and the rank of income within other comparison groups, such as similar individuals) predicted current and future distress. However, when distress was jointly regressed on income and income rank, only income rank remained a significant predictor. Limitations: The outcome measure was self-report (although the predictor was objective). Conclusions: The results support psychosocial rather than material explanations of why income relates to distress, and suggest that a concern for social rank is the mechanism through which these effects occur. This mechanism is consistent with an evolutionarily based "involuntary defeat syndrome" where hard wired responses to low social rank increase risk for disorder and the Decision by Sampling model of how people make relative judgments. Negative cognitions associated with low social rank (particularly defeat and entrapment) may be clinically targetable in both prevention and treatment programs to reduce socio-economic mental health disparities.en_UK
dc.publisherElsevier for the International Society for Affective Disordersen_UK
dc.relationWood AM, Boyce CJ, Moore SC & Brown GDA (2012) An evolutionary based social rank explanation of why low income predicts mental distress: A 17 year cohort study of 30,000 people. Journal of Affective Disorders, 136 (3), pp. 882-888.
dc.rightsThe publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository. Please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study.en_UK
dc.subjectRelative incomeen_UK
dc.subjectMental healthen_UK
dc.subjectSocial statusen_UK
dc.subjectEasterlin paradoxen_UK
dc.subjectRelative ranken_UK
dc.subjectMental health servicesen_UK
dc.subjectMentally illen_UK
dc.subjectLoneliness Psychotherapyen_UK
dc.titleAn evolutionary based social rank explanation of why low income predicts mental distress: A 17 year cohort study of 30,000 peopleen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.rights.embargoreason[Wood_2012_An_evolutionary_based_social_rank_explanation.pdf] The publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository therefore there is an embargo on the full text of the work.en_UK
dc.citation.jtitleJournal of Affective Disordersen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationSocio-Management - LEGACYen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationCardiff Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Warwicken_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorWood, Alex M|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorBoyce, Christopher J|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorMoore, Simon C|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorBrown, Gordon D A|en_UK
local.rioxx.projectInternal Project|University of Stirling|
Appears in Collections:Management, Work and Organisation Journal Articles

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