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Appears in Collections:Computing Science and Mathematics Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Persistence and transmission of tick-borne viruses: Ixodes ricinus and louping- ill virus in red grouse populations
Authors: Hudson, Peter J
Norman, Rachel
Laurenson, M Karen
Newborn, David
Gaunt, Michael W
Jones, Linda D
Reid, Hugh W
Gould, Ernie
Bowers, Roger
Dobson, Andrew
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Keywords: louping-ill
Ixodes Picinus
red grouse
tick-borne diseases
trans-ovarial transmission
reservoir hosts
Issue Date: Jan-1995
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Citation: Hudson PJ, Norman R, Laurenson MK, Newborn D, Gaunt MW, Jones LD, Reid HW, Gould E, Bowers R & Dobson A (1995) Persistence and transmission of tick-borne viruses: Ixodes ricinus and louping-ill virus in red grouse populations, Parasitology, 111 (Supplement S1), pp. S49-S58.
Abstract: The population dynamics of tick-borne disease agents and in particular the mechanisms which influence their persistence are examined with reference to the flavivirus that causes louping-ill in red grouse and sheep. Pockets of infection cause heavy mortality and the infection probably persists as a consequence of immigration of susceptible hosts. Seroprevalence is positively associated with temporal variations in vectors per host, although variation between areas is associated with the abundance of mountain hares. The presence of alternative tick hosts, particularly large mammals, provides additional hosts for increasing tick abundance. Grouse alone can not support the vectors and the pathogen but both can persist when a non-viraemic mammalian host supports the tick population and a sufficiently high number of nymphs bite grouse. These alternative hosts may also amplify virus through non-viraemic transmission by the process of co- feeding, although the relative significance of this has yet to be determined. Another possible route of infection is through the ingestion of vectors when feeding or preening. Trans-ovarial transmission is a potentially important mechanism for virus persistence but has not been recorded with louping-ill and ixodes ricinus. The influence of non-viraemic hosts, both in the multiplication of vectors and the amplification of virus through non-viraemic transmission are considered significant for virus persistence.
Type: Journal Article
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Rights: Publisher policy allows this work to be made available in this repository. Published in Parasitology, Volume 111, Supplement S1, January 1995, pp S49-S58, by Cambridge University Press. The original publication is available at
Affiliation: University of Stirling
Mathematics - CSM Dept
University of Stirling
Game Conservancy Trust
Institute of Virology and Environmental Microbiology
Institute of Virology and Environmental Microbiology
The Moredun Research Institute
Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (CEH)
Mathematics - CSM Dept
Princeton University

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