|Appears in Collections:||Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles|
|Peer Review Status:||Refereed|
|Title:||Parasitoid-pathogen-pest interactions of Chelonus insularis, Campoletis sonorensis, and a nucleopolyhedrovirus in Spodoptera frugiperda larvae|
Cave, Ronald D
|Citation:||Escribano A, Williams T, Goulson D, Cave RD & Caballero P (2000) Parasitoid-pathogen-pest interactions of Chelonus insularis, Campoletis sonorensis, and a nucleopolyhedrovirus in Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, Biological Control, 19 (3), pp. 265-273.|
|Abstract:||In this study we examined interactions between two solitary endoparasitoids, the braconid Chelonus insularis and the ichneumonid Campoletis sonorensis, and a multiple-enveloped nucleopolyhedrovirus infecting Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. We examined whether ovipositing females minimize interference by discriminating amongst hosts and examined the outcome of within-host competition between parasitoid species and between the parasitoids and the virus. The egg–larval parasitoid Ch. insularis did not discriminate between virus-contaminated and uncontaminated S. frugiperda eggs; all S. frugiperda larvae that emerged from surface-contaminated eggs died of viral infection prior to parasitoid emergence. The larval parasitoid C. sonorensis also failed to discriminate between healthy and virus-infected S. frugiperda larvae or between larvae unparasitized or parasitized by Ch. insularis. Host larvae parasitized in the egg stage by Ch. insularis were suitable for the development of C. sonorensis when they were multiparasitized by C. sonorensis as first, second, third, and fourth instars, whereas emergence of Ch. insularis was dramatically reduced (by 85 to 100%) in multiparasitized hosts. Nonspecific host mortality was significantly higher in multiparasitized hosts than in singly parasitized hosts. The development time and sex ratio of C. sonorensis in multiparasitized host larvae were unaffected by the presence of Ch. insularis larval stages. Both Ch. insularis parasitized and nonparasitized larvae of the same instar (second, third, or fourth instars) had a similar quantitative response to a challenge of virus inoculum. All host larvae that ingested a lethal dose of virus were unsuitable for Ch. insularis development. In contrast, C. sonorensis did not survive in hosts that ingested a lethal virus dose immediately after parasitism, but parasitoid survival was possible with a 2-day delay between parasitism and viral infection and the percentage of parasitoid emergence increased significantly as the interval between parasitism and viral infection increased. The development time of C. sonorensis was significantly reduced in virus-infected hosts compared to conspecifics that developed in healthy hosts. C. sonorensis females that oviposited in virus-infected hosts did not transmit the virus to healthy hosts that were parasitized subsequently. Field applications of virus for biocontrol of S. frugiperda may lead to substantial mortality of immature parasitoids, although field experiments have not yet demonstrated such an effect.|
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