|Appears in Collections:||Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles|
|Peer Review Status:||Refereed|
|Title:||Baculovirus resistance in the noctuid Spodoptera exempta is phenotypically plastic and responds to population density|
|Authors:||Reeson, Andrew F|
Hails, Rosemary S
|Citation:||Reeson AF, Wilson K, Gunn A, Hails RS & Goulson D (1998) Baculovirus resistance in the noctuid Spodoptera exempta is phenotypically plastic and responds to population density, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 265 (1407), pp. 1787-1791.|
|Abstract:||Parasite resistance mechanisms can be costly to maintain. We would therefore predict that organisms should invest in resistance only when it is likely to be required. Insects that show density–dependent phase polyphenism, developing different phenotypes at high and low population densities, have the opportunity to match their levels of investment in resistance with the likelihood of exposure to pathogens. As high population densities often precipitate disease epidemics, the high–density form should be selected to invest relatively more in resistance. We tested this prediction in larvae of the noctuid Spodoptera exempta. Larvae reared at a high density were found to be considerably more resistant to a nuclear polyhedrosis virus than those reared in isolation. A conspicuous feature of the high–density phase of S. exempta and other phase–polyphenic Lepidoptera is cuticular melanization. As melanization is controlled by the phenoloxidase enzyme system, which is also involved in the immune response, this suggests a possible mechanism for increased resistance at high population densities. We demonstrated that melanized S. exempta larvae were more resistant than non–melanized forms, independent of rearing density. We also found that haemolymph phenoloxidase activity was correlated with cuticular melanization, providing further evidence for a link between melanization and immunity. These results suggest that pathogen resistance in S. exempta is phenotypically plastic, and that the melanized cuticles characteristic of the high–density form may be indicative of a more active im|
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