Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1893/24421
Appears in Collections:Psychology Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Men’s preferences for women’s breast size and shape in four cultures
Authors: Havlicek, Jan
Trebicky, Vit
Valentova, Jaroslava Varella
Kleisner, Karel
Akoko, Robert Mbe
Fialova, Jitka
Jash, Rosina
Kocnar, Tomas
Pereira, Kamila Janaina
Sterbova, Zuzana
Varella, Marco Antonio Correa
Vokurkova, Jana
Vunan, Ernest
Roberts, S Craig
Contact Email: craig.roberts@stir.ac.uk
Keywords: Permanent breasts
Mate preferences
Residual fertility
Nubility hypothesis
Mammary gland
Human evolution
Issue Date: Mar-2017
Citation: Havlicek J, Trebicky V, Valentova JV, Kleisner K, Akoko RM, Fialova J, Jash R, Kocnar T, Pereira KJ, Sterbova Z, Varella MAC, Vokurkova J, Vunan E & Roberts SC (2017) Men’s preferences for women’s breast size and shape in four cultures, Evolution and Human Behavior, 38 (2), pp. 217-226.
Abstract: The morphology of human female breasts typical for their permanent fat deposits appears to be unique among primates. It has been previously suggested that female breast morphology arose as a result of sexual selection. This is supported by evidence showing that women with larger breasts tend to have higher estrogen levels; breast size may therefore serve as an indicator of potential fertility. However, breasts become less firm with age and parity, and breast shape could thus also serve as a marker of residual fertility. Therefore, cross-culturally, males are hypothesized to prefer breast morphology that indicates both high potential and residual fertility. To test this, we performed a survey on men´s preferences for breast morphology in four different cultures (Brazil, Cameroon, the Czech Republic, Namibia). As stimuli, we used two sets of images varying in breast size (marker of potential fertility) and level of breast firmness (marker of residual fertility). Individual preferences for breast size were variable, but the majority of raters preferred medium sized, followed by large sized breasts. In contrast, we found systematic directional preferences for firm breasts across all four samples. This pattern supports the idea that breast morphology may serve as a residual fertility indicator, but offers more limited support for the potential fertility indicator hypothesis. Future studies should focus on a potential interaction between the two parameters, breast size and firmness, which, taken together, may help to explain the relatively large variation in women's breast sizes.
DOI Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2016.10.002
Rights: This item has been embargoed for a period. During the embargo please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study. Accepted refereed manuscript of: Havlicek J, Trebicky V, Valentova JV, Kleisner K, Akoko RM, Fialova J, Jash R, Kocnar T, Pereira KJ, Sterbova Z, Varella MAC, Vokurkova J, Vunan E & Roberts SC (2017) Men’s preferences for women’s breast size and shape in four cultures, Evolution and Human Behavior, 38 (2), pp. 217-226. DOI: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2016.10.002 © 2016, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
EHB-15-265R1.pdf723.51 kBAdobe PDFUnder Embargo until 19/10/2018     Request a copy

Note: If any of the files in this item are currently embargoed, you can request a copy directly from the author by clicking the padlock icon above. However, this facility is dependent on the depositor still being contactable at their original email address.



This item is protected by original copyright



Items in the Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

If you believe that any material held in STORRE infringes copyright, please contact library@stir.ac.uk providing details and we will remove the Work from public display in STORRE and investigate your claim.