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Appears in Collections:Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal Articles
Title: Saving the World's Terrestrial Megafauna (Forthcoming/Available Online)
Authors: Ripple, William J
Chapron, Guillaume
Lopez-Bao, Jose Vicente
Durant, Sarah M
Macdonald, David W
Lindsey, Peter A
Bennett, Elizabeth L
Beschta, Robert L
Bruskotter, Jeremy T
Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa
Corlett, Richard T
Darimont, Chris T
Dickman, Amy J
Dirzo, Rodolfo
Dublin, Holly T
Estes, James A
Everatt, Kristoffer T
Galetti, Mauro
Goswami, Varun R
Hayward, Matt W
Hedges, Simon
Hoffmann, Michael
Hunter, Luke T B
Kerley, Graham IH
Letnic, Mike
Levi, Taal
Maisels, Fiona
Morrison, John C
Nelson, Michael Paul
Newsome, Thomas M
Painter, Luke
Pringle, Robert M
Sandom, Christopher J
Terborgh, John
Treves, Adrian
Van, Valkenburgh Blaire
Vucetich, John A
Wirsing, Aaron J
Wallach, Arian D
Wolf, Christopher
Woodroffe, Rosie
Young, Hillary
Zhang, Li
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Institute of Biological Sciences
Citation: Ripple WJ, Chapron G, Lopez-Bao JV, Durant SM, Macdonald DW, Lindsey PA, Bennett EL, Beschta RL, Bruskotter JT, Campos-Arceiz A, Corlett RT, Darimont CT, Dickman AJ, Dirzo R, Dublin HT, Estes JA, Everatt KT, Galetti M, Goswami VR, Hayward MW, Hedges S, Hoffmann M, Hunter LTB, Kerley GI, Letnic M, Levi T, Maisels F, Morrison JC, Nelson MP, Newsome TM, Painter L, Pringle RM, Sandom CJ, Terborgh J, Treves A, Van Valkenburgh B, Vucetich JA, Wirsing AJ, Wallach AD, Wolf C, Woodroffe R, Young H & Zhang L (2016) Saving the World's Terrestrial Megafauna (Forthcoming/Available Online), Bioscience.
Abstract: From the late Pleistocene to the Holocene and now the so-called Anthropocene, humans have been driving an ongoing series of species declines and extinctions (Dirzo et al. 2014). Large-bodied mammals are typically at a higher risk of extinction than smaller ones (Cardillo et al. 2005). However, in some circumstances, terrestrial megafauna populations have been able to recover some of their lost numbers because of strong conservation and political commitment, as well as human cultural changes (Chapron et al. 2014). Indeed, many would be in considerably worse predicaments in the absence of conservation action (Hoffmann et al. 2015). Nevertheless, most mammalian megafauna face dramatic range contractions and population declines. In fact, 59% of the world's largest carnivores (more than or equal to 15 kilograms, n = 27) and 60% of the world's largest herbivores (more than or equal to 100 kilograms, n = 74) are classified as threatened with extinction on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List (supplemental tables S1 and S2). This situation is particularly dire in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, home to the greatest diversity of extant megafauna (figure 1). Species at risk of extinction include some of the world's most iconic animals-such as gorillas, rhinos, and big cats (figure 2 top row)-and, unfortunately, they are vanishing just as science is discovering their essential ecological roles (Estes et al. 2011). Here, our objectives are to raise awareness of how these megafauna are imperiled (species in tables S1 and S2) and to stimulate broad interest in developing specific recommendations and concerted action to conserve them.
Type: Journal Article
DOI Link:
Rights: Copyright: The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Institute of Biological Sciences. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact
Affiliation: Oregon State University
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Oviedo University
Zoological Society of London
University of Oxford
Panthera, New York
Wildlife Conservation Society (North America Program)
Oregon State University
Ohio State University
University of Nottingham
Chinese Academy of Sciences
University of Victoria
University of Oxford
Stanford University
IUCN Eastern and Southern African Regional Office
University of California
Nelson Mandela University
Universidade Estadual Paulista
Wildlife Conservation Society (India Program)
Nelson Mandela University
Wildlife Conservation Society (Africa Program)
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
Panthera, New York
Nelson Mandela University
University of New South Wales
Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon
Biological and Environmental Sciences
World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF)
Oregon State University
Oregon State University
Oregon State University
Princeton University
University of Sussex
Duke University
University of Wisconsin-Madison
University of California
Michigan Technological University
University of Washington
University of Technology, Sydney
Oregon State University
Zoological Society of London
University of California
Beijing Normal University, China

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