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Appears in Collections:Psychology Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Fecundity and population viability in female zoo elephants: problems and possible solutions
Authors: Clubb, Ros
Rowcliffe, Marcus
Lee, Phyllis C
Mar, Khyne U
Moss, Cynthia J
Mason, Georgia J
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Keywords: African elephant
animal welfare
Asian elephant
population viability
Issue Date: Aug-2009
Publisher: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare
Citation: Clubb R, Rowcliffe M, Lee PC, Mar KU, Moss CJ & Mason GJ (2009) Fecundity and population viability in female zoo elephants: problems and possible solutions, Animal Welfare, 18 (3), pp. 237-247.
Abstract: We previously reported that African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) female elephants in European zoos have shorter adult lifespans than protected conspecifics in range countries. This effect was the cause of greatest concern in Asian elephants, and risk factors within this species included being zoo-born, transferred between zoos, and possibly removed early from the mother. Here, we investigate these risk factors further; assess fecundity and sustainability in European zoos; and propose testable hypotheses as to the causes of these animals’ problems. Although imported wild-born Asian elephants live longer than zoo-born conspecifics, being imported when juvenile or adult appears no more protective than being imported in infancy, suggesting that the benefits of being wild- rather than zoo-born are conferred early in life. Zoo-born Asian neonates are significantly heavier than those born to working animals in range countries, with a possible tendency to be fatter. In zoos, African elephants have tended to be removed from their mothers at older ages than young Asians, and were also transferred between zoos significantly less often: factors that could possibly underlie this species’ lower calf losses and improving adult survivorship in Europe. Both species have low fecundity in European zoos compared to in situ populations, and are not self-sustaining, declining at approximately 10% per annum if reliant on captive-bred females under historically prevailing conditions. Data from other species suggest that stress and/or obesity are parsimonious explanations for the suite of problems seen. We recommend specific screens for testing these hypotheses, and for potentially identifying vulnerable individuals within the extant zoo populations.
Type: Journal Article
Rights: The publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository. Please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author; you can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study.
Affiliation: Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA)
Zoological Society of London
Zoological Society of London
Amboseli Trust for Elephants
University of Guelph

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