Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1893/34535
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of text messages with or without endowment incentives for weight management in men with obesity (Game of Stones): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial
Author(s): Macaulay, Lisa
O’Dolan, Catriona
Avenell, Alison
Carroll, Paula
Cotton, Seonaidh
Dombrowski, Stephan
Elders, Andrew
Goulao, Beatriz
Gray, Cindy
Harris, Fiona M
Hunt, Kate
Kee, Frank
Torrens, Claire
van der Pol, Marjon
Hoddinott, Pat
Keywords: Randomised controlled trial
Men with obesity
Text messages
Financial incentives
Weight management
Health inequalities
Process evaluation
Cost-effectiveness
Issue Date: Dec-2022
Date Deposited: 26-Jul-2022
Citation: Macaulay L, O’Dolan C, Avenell A, Carroll P, Cotton S, Dombrowski S, Elders A, Goulao B, Gray C, Harris FM, Hunt K, Kee F, Torrens C, van der Pol M & Hoddinott P (2022) Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of text messages with or without endowment incentives for weight management in men with obesity (Game of Stones): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, 23 (1), Art. No.: 582. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-022-06504-5
Abstract: Background Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, mobility problems and some cancers, and its prevalence is rising. Men engage less than women in existing weight loss interventions. Game of Stones builds on a successful feasibility study and aims to find out if automated text messages with or without endowment incentives are effective and cost-effective for weight loss at 12 months compared to a waiting list comparator arm in men with obesity. Methods A 3-arm, parallel group, assessor-blind superiority randomised controlled trial with process evaluation will recruit 585 adult men with body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or more living in and around three UK centres (Belfast, Bristol, Glasgow), purposively targeting disadvantaged areas. Intervention groups: (i) automated, theory-informed text messages daily for 12 months plus endowment incentives linked to verified weight loss targets at 3, 6 and 12 months; (ii) the same text messages and weight loss assessment protocol; (iii) comparator group: 12 month waiting list, then text messages for 3 months. The primary outcome is percentage weight change at 12 months from baseline. Secondary outcomes at 12 months are as follows: quality of life, wellbeing, mental health, weight stigma, behaviours, satisfaction and confidence. Follow-up includes weight at 24 months. A health economic evaluation will measure cost-effectiveness over the trial and over modelled lifetime: including health service resource-use and quality-adjusted life years. The cost-utility analysis will report incremental cost per quality-adjusted life years gained. Participant and service provider perspectives will be explored via telephone interviews, and exploratory mixed methods process evaluation analyses will focus on mental health, multiple long-term conditions, health inequalities and implementation strategies. Discussion The trial will report whether text messages (with and without cash incentives) can help men to lose weight over 1 year and maintain this for another year compared to a comparator group; the costs and benefits to the health service; and men’s experiences of the interventions. Process analyses with public involvement and service commissioner input will ensure that this open-source digital self-care intervention could be sustainable and scalable by a range of NHS or public services.
DOI Link: 10.1186/s13063-022-06504-5
Rights: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Notes: Additional co-authors: Graeme MacLennan, Matthew David McDonald, Michelle McKinley, Rebecca Skinner, Martin Tod, and Katrina Turner,
Licence URL(s): http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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