Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Is the economic model of gambling dependent on problem gambling? Evidence from an online survey of regular sports bettors in Britain
Author(s): Wardle, Heather
Kolesnikov, Alexey
Fiedler, Ingo
Critchlow, Nathan
Hunt, Kate
Contact Email:
Keywords: Gambling industry
problem gambling
Issue Date: 4-Jul-2022
Date Deposited: 5-Jul-2022
Citation: Wardle H, Kolesnikov A, Fiedler I, Critchlow N & Hunt K (2022) Is the economic model of gambling dependent on problem gambling? Evidence from an online survey of regular sports bettors in Britain. International Gambling Studies.
Abstract: Understanding how the gambling industry generates revenue is of paramount importance. Questions about whether higher volumes of expenditure are concentrated among a small proportion of gamblers, and how this varies by problematic gambling status, underpin policy debate about consumer protection. Analyzing data from two timepoints (T0; T2) from a British longitudinal study of regular sports bettors, we explored both for total (gross) spend and gross spend on individual activities: (a) the concentration of self-reported spend on gambling among individuals; and (b) the extent to which spending was disproportionately generated by those with elevated Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) scores. Results showed that gross gambling expenditure was unequal (GINI-coefficient >0.70 for most activities). At both timepoints, those with a PGSI score of 3+ had an elevated share of spending: at T2, 14.1% of PGSI 3+ gamblers accounted for 43.5% of gross gambling spend. There were differences by activity: lotteries displayed less reliance on those with a PGSI score of 3+ whereas this group contributed over 80% of gross spend on online casinos. Policy attention should focus on reframing the underlying economic model on which some gambling activities are predicated, creating more equal patterns of consumption and less reliance on those harmed.
DOI Link: 10.1080/14459795.2022.2088823
Rights: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Notes: Output Status: Forthcoming/Available Online
Licence URL(s):

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Wardle_et_al_2022.pdfFulltext - Published Version1.61 MBAdobe PDFView/Open

This item is protected by original copyright

A file in this item is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons

Items in the Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

The metadata of the records in the Repository are available under the CC0 public domain dedication: No Rights Reserved

If you believe that any material held in STORRE infringes copyright, please contact providing details and we will remove the Work from public display in STORRE and investigate your claim.