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Appears in Collections:Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Time of day of vaccination does not relate to antibody response to thymus-independent vaccinations
Author(s): Whittaker, Anna C
Gallagher, Stephen
Drayson, Mark
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Keywords: Antibody response
Time of day
Issue Date: Aug-2022
Date Deposited: 21-Jun-2022
Citation: Whittaker AC, Gallagher S & Drayson M (2022) Time of day of vaccination does not relate to antibody response to thymus-independent vaccinations. <i>Vaccine: X</i>, 11, Art. No.: 100178.
Abstract: Variable responses to vaccination are of historical and current concern, particularly among vulnerable groups. Biochemical and behavioural methods of improving vaccination response have been examined. There is some evidence that vaccinating in the morning could enhance vaccine responses, however, this has consistently been shown in thymus-dependent vaccinations, such as influenza. The present analysis of data from two observational studies of the association between psychosocial factors and vaccination response. These data included response to a thymus-independent vaccination - pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, examined morning versus afternoon vaccine administration in 75 healthy young adults and 61 parents, including 32 caregivers of a child with a development disability and 29 control parents. In both datasets, timing of vaccination was not related to antibody response. This suggests that effects of time of day may be limited to thymus-dependent vaccinations although replication in a large randomised controlled trial using other thymus-dependent vaccinations is required.
DOI Link: 10.1016/j.jvacx.2022.100178
Rights: This article is available under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-ND license ( and permits non-commercial use of the work as published, without adaptation or alteration provided the work is fully attributed. For commercial reuse, permission must be requested.
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