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dc.contributor.authorTappin, Daviden_UK
dc.contributor.authorMackay, Danielen_UK
dc.contributor.authorReynolds, Lucyen_UK
dc.contributor.authorFitzgerald, Niamhen_UK
dc.description.abstractBackground Stigmatized behaviours are often underreported, especially in pregnancy, making them challenging to address. The Alcohol and Child Development Study (ACDS) seeks to inform prevention of foetal alcohol harm, linking self-report as well as a maternal blood alcohol biomarker with child developmental outcomes. Samples were requested using passive, generic consent. The success of this approach at minimizing bias is presented comparing characteristics of women who provided samples to those who did not. Methods All pregnant women in the study city were sent a Patient Information Sheet (PIS) with their first NHS obstetric appointment letter. The PIS informed them that the NHS would like to take an extra blood sample for research purposes, unless they opted out. Neither the women nor the midwives were informed that the samples might be tested for an alcohol biomarker. This paper examines the extent to which women who provided the extra sample were representative of women where no sample was provided, in terms of routinely collected information: age; body mass index; area-based deprivation; previous pregnancies, abortions and caesarians; smoking status and carbon monoxide level; self-reported alcohol use, gestation and birth weight of their baby. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare groups. Results 3436 (85%) of the 4049 pregnant women who attended their appointment provided the extra sample. Women who did not were significantly younger (pā€‰en_UK
dc.publisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLCen_UK
dc.relationTappin D, Mackay D, Reynolds L & Fitzgerald N (2022) Minimizing sample bias due to stigmatized behaviours: the representativeness of participants in a cohort study of alcohol in pregnancy. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 22 (1), Art. No.: 138.
dc.rightsThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.en_UK
dc.subjectEthics of informed consenten_UK
dc.subjectClinical markersen_UK
dc.subjectCohort studyen_UK
dc.subjectData collectionen_UK
dc.titleMinimizing sample bias due to stigmatized behaviours: the representativeness of participants in a cohort study of alcohol in pregnancyen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleBMC Medical Research Methodologyen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.funderNHS Greater Glasgow & Clydeen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Glasgowen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Glasgowen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationNHS Greater Glasgow & Clydeen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationInstitute for Social Marketingen_UK
dc.relation.funderprojectLinking self report and biomarkers of alcohol consumption in early pregnancy in Glasgow to pregnancy and child health outcomes: the obstetric research study ā€“ phase 1en_UK
rioxxterms.apcnot requireden_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorTappin, David|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorMackay, Daniel|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorReynolds, Lucy|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorFitzgerald, Niamh|0000-0002-3643-8165en_UK
local.rioxx.project75644|NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde|en_UK
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles

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