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dc.contributor.authorCox, Sharonen_UK
dc.contributor.authorMurray, Jaimien_UK
dc.contributor.authorFord, Allisonen_UK
dc.contributor.authorHolmes, Lucyen_UK
dc.contributor.authorRobson, Deborahen_UK
dc.contributor.authorDawkins, Lynneen_UK
dc.description.abstractBackground: Smoking is extremely common amongst adults experiencing homelessness. To date, there is no nationally representative data on how tobacco dependence is treated and if and how smoking cessation is supported across the homeless sector. The aim of this study was to document smoking and e-cigarette policies of UK homeless services and identify areas of good practice and where improvements could be made. Methods: A cross-sectional survey with homeless centre staff was conducted between June 2020-December 2020 totalling 99 homeless centres. Quotas were stratified based on population and service type across Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales, and England. Interviews were conducted over the phone or online in a minority of cases. Survey questions were themed to assess, i) onsite smoking and e-cigarette (vaping) policies ii) screening and recording of smoking status, iii) cessation training and resources available to staff, iv) cessation support for service users. Results: 92% accounted for smoking within their policies in some form. 84% allowed smoking in at least some (indoor and outdoor) areas. In areas where smoking was disallowed, vaping was also disallowed in 96% of cases. Staff smoking rates were 22.6% and 62% of centres reported that staff smoked with service users. Just over half (52%) reported screening and recording smoking status and 58% made referrals to the NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS) although established links with SSS were rare (12%) and most centres did not provide staff training on supporting smoking cessation. Areas of good practice included regular offers of smoking cessation support embedded in routine health reviews or visits from SSS and offering tangible harm reduction support (i.e. e-cigarettes). Areas for improvement included a lack of staff training, staff smoking with service users and skipping routine screening questions around smoking. Conclusions: Smoking is accounted for across different policy types and restricted in some areas within most settings. Smoking cessation support is not routinely offered across the sector and there is little involvement with the SSS.en_UK
dc.relationCox S, Murray J, Ford A, Holmes L, Robson D & Dawkins L (2022) A cross-sectional survey of smoking and cessation support policies in a sample of homeless services in the United Kingdom. BMC Health Services Research, 22 (1), Art. No.: 635.
dc.rightsThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.en_UK
dc.subjectsmoking cessationen_UK
dc.subjectharm reductionen_UK
dc.titleA cross-sectional survey of smoking and cessation support policies in a sample of homeless services in the United Kingdomen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleBMC Health Services Researchen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.funderCancer Research UKen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity College Londonen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity College Londonen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationInstitute for Social Marketingen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationAlcohol Change UKen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationKing's College Londonen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationLondon South Bank Universityen_UK
rioxxterms.apcnot requireden_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorCox, Sharon|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorMurray, Jaimi|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorFord, Allison|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorHolmes, Lucy|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorRobson, Deborah|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorDawkins, Lynne|en_UK
local.rioxx.projectProject ID unknown|Cancer Research UK|
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles

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