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dc.contributor.authorBuchanan-Smith, Hannah Men_UK
dc.contributor.authorTasker, Louen_UK
dc.contributor.authorAsh, Hayleyen_UK
dc.contributor.authorGraham, Melanie Len_UK
dc.contributor.editorRobinson, Lauren Men_UK
dc.contributor.editorWeiss, Alexanderen_UK
dc.description.abstractThe use of primates in regulated research and testing means that they are intentionally subjected to scientific procedures that have the potential to cause pain, suffering, distress, or lasting harm. These harms, combined with keeping primates in restricted laboratory conditions, are balanced against the potential (primarily human) benefits gained from their use. In this chapter, we provide a brief overview of the use of primates in laboratories, the estimated number and purpose of use, and summarize the evidence that primates are especially vulnerable and deserve special protection compared to other animals. The 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) framework, underpinning humane science, is described, and we emphasize both the ethical and scientific need for Refinement. Refinement refers to all approaches used (by humans responsible for their care) to minimize harms and improve welfare for those primates that are still used in research after the application of the Replacement and Reduction principles. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating an interplay between animals’ welfare and experimental parameters, and that this interplay affects the validity and reliability of scientific output. With this perspective, we argue that it is better to collect no data than to collect poor (e.g. invalid, unreliable) data. It is, after all, unacceptable for primates to suffer in vain and violates utilitarian principles underlying animal use. Furthermore, inconsistency in experimental approach may introduce conflicting results, increasing the likelihood of using more animals, and delaying delivery of promising therapies to the clinic. We focus on mitigating the major welfare issues faced by primates housed in laboratories through coordinated refinements across their lifespans. Drawing on examples from cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), an Old World monkey commonly used during the development of medical products, we highlight the importance of understanding the critical role humans play in the laboratory, providing environments, performing husbandry, and undertaking procedures that promote welfare and decrease harms. Our theoretical premise is that if primates are to be ‘fit for purpose’ (i.e. well suited for the designated role), we need a proactive, concerted approach for implementing Refinement that spans their lifetime.en_UK
dc.relationBuchanan-Smith HM, Tasker L, Ash H & Graham ML (2023) Welfare of primates in laboratories: opportunities for refinement. In: Robinson LM & Weiss A (eds.) <i>Welfare of nonhuman primates</i>. Cham: Springer, pp. 97-12.
dc.rightsThis item has been embargoed for a period. During the embargo please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study. This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of a chapter published in Robinson, L.M., Weiss, A. (eds) Nonhuman Primate Welfare. Springer, Cham, 2023, pp. 97-10. The final authenticated version is available online at:
dc.subjectFit for purposeen_UK
dc.subjectRegulated researchen_UK
dc.subjectMacaca fascicularisen_UK
dc.subjectValid dataen_UK
dc.titleWelfare of primates in laboratories: opportunities for refinementen_UK
dc.typePart of book or chapter of booken_UK
dc.rights.embargoreason[7. Welfare in labs revision Accepted revised 9 Oct for Repository.pdf] Until this work is published there will be an embargo on the full text of this work. Publisher requires embargo of 24 months after formal publication.en_UK
dc.type.statusAM - Accepted Manuscripten_UK
dc.citation.btitleWelfare of nonhuman primatesen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Minnesotaen_UK
rioxxterms.apcnot requireden_UK
rioxxterms.typeBook chapteren_UK
local.rioxx.authorBuchanan-Smith, Hannah M|0000-0002-2516-7734en_UK
local.rioxx.authorTasker, Lou|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorAsh, Hayley|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorGraham, Melanie L|en_UK
local.rioxx.projectInternal Project|University of Stirling|
local.rioxx.contributorRobinson, Lauren M|en_UK
local.rioxx.contributorWeiss, Alexander|en_UK
local.rioxx.filename7. Welfare in labs revision Accepted revised 9 Oct for Repository.pdfen_UK
Appears in Collections:Psychology Book Chapters and Sections

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