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Appears in Collections:Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Secondhand smoke exposure and other signs of tobacco consumption at outdoor entrances of primary schools in 11 European countries
Author(s): Henderson, Elisabet
Continente, Xavier
Fernández, Esteve
Tigova, Olena
Cortés-Francisco, Nuria
Gallus, Silvano
Lugo, Alessandra
Semple, Sean
O'Donnell, Rachel
Clancy, Luke
Keogan, Sheila
Ruprecht, Ario
Borgini, Alessandro
Tzortzi, Anna
Dobson, Ruaraidh
Keywords: Tobacco smoke pollution
Smoke-free regulations
Educational center
Issue Date: 15-Nov-2020
Citation: Henderson E, Continente X, Fernández E, Tigova O, Cortés-Francisco N, Gallus S, Lugo A, Semple S, O'Donnell R, Clancy L, Keogan S, Ruprecht A, Borgini A, Tzortzi A & Dobson R (2020) Secondhand smoke exposure and other signs of tobacco consumption at outdoor entrances of primary schools in 11 European countries. Science of the Total Environment, 743, Art. No.: 140743.
Abstract: Introduction Although smoking restrictions at child-related settings are progressively being adopted, school outdoor entrances are neglected in most smoke-free policies across Europe. Objectives To describe secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and tobacco-related signs in outdoor entrances of primary schools in Europe according to area-level socioeconomic status (SES), smoke-free policy, national smoking prevalence, and geographical region. Methods In this cross-sectional study we monitored vapor-phase nicotine concentrations at 220 school outdoor entrances in 11 European countries (March 2017–October 2018). To account for nicotine presence, we used the laboratory's limit of quantification of 0.06 μg/m3 as point threshold. We also recorded the presence of smell of smoke, people smoking, cigarette butts, and ashtrays. Half of the schools were in deprived areas. We grouped countries according to their Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) score, smoking prevalence (2017–2018), and United Nations M49 geographical region. Results There were detectable levels of nicotine in 45.9% of the outdoor entrances, in 29.1% smell of smoke, in 43.2% people smoking, in 75.0% discarded butts, and in 14.6% ashtrays. Median nicotine concentration was below the laboratory's limit of quantification
DOI Link: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140743
Rights: This article is available under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-ND license ( and permits non-commercial use of the work as published, without adaptation or alteration provided the work is fully attributed.
Notes: Additional co-authors: Vergina K. Vyzikidou, Giuseppe Gorini, Angel López-Nicolás, Joan B. Soriano, Gergana Geshanova, Joseph Osman, Ute Mons, Krzysztof Przewozniak, José Precioso, Ramona Brad, Maria J. López, and the TackSHS project Investigators
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