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Appears in Collections:Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: An evaluation of prevention initiatives by 53 National Anti-Doping Organizations: Achievements and Limitations
Author(s): Gatterer, Katharina
Gumpenberger, Matthias
Overbye, Marie
Streicher, Bernhard
Schobersberger, Wolfgang
Blank, Cornelia
Keywords: Anti-doping program
Doping prevention
Issue Date: May-2020
Citation: Gatterer K, Gumpenberger M, Overbye M, Streicher B, Schobersberger W & Blank C (2020) An evaluation of prevention initiatives by 53 National Anti-Doping Organizations: Achievements and Limitations. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 9 (3), pp. 228-239.
Abstract: Background One main purpose of the World Anti-Doping Agency is to harmonize anti-doping efforts, including the provision of anti-doping education. A multifaceted approach to doping prevention can play a key role in preventing intentional and unintentional doping. This article aims to systematically record and evaluate doping prevention approaches in the form of information and education activities of national anti-doping organizations (NADOs) and assess the extent to which a multifaceted doping prevention approach has been realized. Methods Data on anti-doping information and education activities of 53 NADOs were collected via a survey and an online search of the NADOs’ websites. Prevention activities were classified into knowledge focused, affective focused, social skills, life skills, and ethics and values based. The implementation of the prevention activities was assessed by 4 independent raters using a modified visual analogue scale. Results In total, 59% of the NADOs (n = 38) returned the survey and 70% (n = 45) had information available online. The data were combined for the visual analogue scale assessment. Overall, 58% of the NADOs (n = 37) reported offering activities including elements of all 5 approaches. Results of the raters’ assessments indicated that the knowledge-focused approach was best implemented; the implementation of the other 4 approaches was largely unsatisfactory. The most common barriers to implementing doping prevention programs reported by the NADOs were lack of resources (n = 26) and difficulties in collaborating with sports organizations (n = 8). Conclusion Results show a discrepancy between NADOs’ self-report data and the implementation assessment. Even though the NADOs indicated otherwise, most of their education-based approaches did not address aspects of the visual analogue scale (e.g., resisting peer pressure) and only a few programs were ongoing. Possible explanations might be found in the reported barriers (e.g., financial). Concrete guidelines defining multifaceted, values-based education, and best practice examples should be developed to indicate how to include all 5 approaches in prevention.
DOI Link: 10.1016/j.jshs.2019.12.002
Rights: Copyright 2020 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Shanghai University of Sport. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license. (
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