Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Improving muscle mass: response of muscle metabolism to exercise, nutrition and anabolic agents
Author(s): Tipton, Kevin
Ferrando, Arny A
Contact Email:
Keywords: Muscle mass
muscle metabolism
Muscles Metabolism
Issue Date: 2008
Date Deposited: 3-May-2011
Citation: Tipton K & Ferrando AA (2008) Improving muscle mass: response of muscle metabolism to exercise, nutrition and anabolic agents. Essays in Biochemistry, 44, pp. 85-98.
Abstract: Muscle mass is critical for athletic performance and, perhaps more importantly for most, health and survival. The metabolic basis for a change in muscle mass is an increase in net muscle protein balance (termed NBAL). NBAL is the difference between MPS (muscle protein synthesis) and MPB (muscle protein breakdown). Thus an increase in MPS and/or a decrease in MPB are necessary for NBAL to increase, leading to accretion of muscle proteins. In particular, accretion of myofibrillar proteins is necessary. NBAL responds to exercise, feeding and other factors. In healthy, weight-stable adults, muscle mass remains constant because periods of positive balance following feeding are countered by periods of negative balance during fasting. A combination of resistance exercise and nutrition is a potent anabolic stimulus through stimulation of MPS from amino acids and attenuation of MPB by carbohydrates. Increased muscle mass results from the accumulation of small amounts of protein in response to each bout of exercise combined with nutrient intake. The magnitude of the response may be influenced by factors other than just the amount of a nutrient ingested. Timing of ingestion, co-ingestion of nutrients and the type of protein may all influence protein accretion. Testosterone is a potent anabolic stimulus primarily through improvement in re-utilization of amino acids from MPB. There is a general lack of efficacy in studies assessing the potential for growth hormone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrostenedione to increase muscle mass. Creatine supplementation is clearly an effective means to increase muscle mass, especially in combination with resistance exercise, however the mechanisms remain unclear. Results from acute metabolic studies provide useful information for estimation of the efficacy of anabolic agents.
DOI Link: 10.1042/BSE0440085
Rights: © The Authors Journal compilation © 2008 Biochemical Society; The publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository. Please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author; you can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study.

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
tipton and ferrando 08 msc mass prot metb review EssBiochem.pdfFulltext - Published Version134 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

This item is protected by original copyright

Items in the Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

The metadata of the records in the Repository are available under the CC0 public domain dedication: No Rights Reserved

If you believe that any material held in STORRE infringes copyright, please contact providing details and we will remove the Work from public display in STORRE and investigate your claim.