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Appears in Collections:Aquaculture eTheses
Title: Marker-assisted selection in enhancing genetically male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) production
Author(s): Khan, Mohd Golam Quader
Supervisor(s): Penman, David J.
McAndrew, Brendan J.
Keywords: Marker-assisted selection, genetically male tilapia, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus,
microsatellite markers, ambivalent alleles
Issue Date: 23-Feb-2011
Publisher: University of Stirling
Abstract: All-male fry are preferred to prevent uncontrolled reproduction before harvest in intensive Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) aquaculture. Males also grow faster than females. An alternative approach to direct hormonal masculinisation of tilapia fry is to produce fry that are genetically male. However, sex determination system in tilapia is fairly complex. Recent developments have resulted in a linkage map and genetic markers that can be used to analyse the sex determination system. To analyse the genetic sex determination mechanism and to develop marker-assisted selection in the Stirling Nile tilapia population, a fully inbred line of clonal females (XX) was verified using test crosses and DNA markers (mostly microsatellites) to use as a standard reference line in sex determination studies. A series of crosses were performed involving this line of females and a range of males. Three groups of crosses were selected (each group consisted of three families) from progeny sex ratio distributions, and designated as type ‘A’ (normal XY males x clonal XX females), type ‘B’ (putative YY males x clonal XX females) and type ‘C’ (unknown groups of males x clonal XX females), for sex linkage study. For type ‘A’, inheritance of DNA markers and phenotypic sex was investigated using screened markers from tilapia linkage group 1 (LG1) to confirm the LG1-associated pattern of inheritance of phenotypic sex and the structure of LG1. Screened markers from LG1, LG3 and LG23 were used to investigate the association of markers with sex in families of type ‘B’ and ‘C’. In addition, a genome-wide scan of markers from the other 21 LGs was performed to investigate any association between markers and sex, in only families of cross type ‘B’. LG1 associated pattern of inheritance of phenotypic sex was confirmed by genotype and QTL analyses in families of cross type ‘A’. Analyses of genotypes in families of type ‘B’ and ‘C’ showed strong association with LG1 markers but no association with LG3 and LG23 markers. Genome wide scan of markers from all other LGs did not show any significant association between any markers and the sex. The allelic inheritance of two tightly linked LG1 markers (UNH995 and UNH104) in families of type ‘B’ and ‘C’ identified polymorphism in the sex determining locus: one of the alleles was associated mostly with male offspring whereas another allele was associated with both progeny (mostly males in type ‘B’ families, and approximately equal numbers in type ‘C’ families). This knowledge was used to identify and separate supermales (‘YY’ males) that should sire higher proportions of male progeny, reared to become sexually mature for use as broodstock. Two of them were crossed with XX females (one clonal and one outbred) to observe the phenotypic expression of the strongest male-associated allele in progeny sex. The observations of 98% male (99 males out of 101 progeny) and 100% male (N=75) from these two crosses respectively, suggest that a marker-assisted selection (MAS) programme for genetically male Nile tilapia production could be practical. This study also suggests that the departures from the sex ratios predicted using a “simple” XX/XY model (i.e., YY x XX should give all-male progeny) were strongly associated with the XX/XY system, due to multiple alleles, rather than being associated with loci in other LGs (e.g., LG3, LG23). This study also tentatively names the allele(s) giving intermediate sex ratios as “ambivalent” and emphasizes that the presence and actions of such allele(s) at the same sex-determining locus could explain departures from predicted sex ratios observed in some earlier studies in Nile tilapia.
Type: Thesis or Dissertation
Affiliation: School of Natural Sciences

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