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Appears in Collections:Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Development of a Complex Intervention for the Maintenance of Postpartum Smoking Abstinence: Process for Defining Evidence-Based Intervention
Author(s): Notley, Caitlin
Brown, Tracey J
Bauld, Linda
Hardeman, Wendy
Holland, Richard
Naughton, Felix
Orton, Sophie
Ussher, Michael
Keywords: tobacco smoking relapse prevention
postpartum women
intervention development
mixed methods
Issue Date: Jun-2019
Date Deposited: 17-Jun-2019
Citation: Notley C, Brown TJ, Bauld L, Hardeman W, Holland R, Naughton F, Orton S & Ussher M (2019) Development of a Complex Intervention for the Maintenance of Postpartum Smoking Abstinence: Process for Defining Evidence-Based Intervention. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16 (11), Art. No.: 1968.
Abstract: Relapse to tobacco smoking for pregnant women who quit is a major public health problem. Evidence-based approaches to intervention are urgently required. This study aimed to develop an intervention to be integrated into existing healthcare. A mixed methods approach included a theory-driven systematic review identifying promising behaviour change techniques for targeting smoking relapse prevention, and qualitative focus groups and interviews with women (ex-smokers who had remained quit and those who had relapsed), their partners and healthcare professionals (N = 74). A final stage recruited ten women to refine and initially test a prototype intervention. Our qualitative analysis suggests a lack, but need for, relapse prevention support. This should be initiated by a trusted ‘credible source’. For many women this would be a midwife or a health visitor. Support needs to be tailored to individual needs, including positive praise/reward, novel digital and electronic support and partner or social support. Advice and support to use e cigarettes or nicotine replacement therapy for relapse prevention was important for some women, but others remained cautious. The resulting prototype complex intervention includes face-to-face support reiterated throughout the postpartum period, tailored digital and self-help support and novel elements such as gifts and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT).
DOI Link: 10.3390/ijerph16111968
Rights: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
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