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dc.contributor.authorHillier-Brown, Frances Cen_UK
dc.contributor.authorSummerbell, Carolyn Den_UK
dc.contributor.authorMoore, Helen Jen_UK
dc.contributor.authorRouten, Ashen_UK
dc.contributor.authorLake, Amelia Aen_UK
dc.contributor.authorAdams, Jeanen_UK
dc.contributor.authorWhite, Martinen_UK
dc.contributor.authorAraujo-Soares, Veraen_UK
dc.contributor.authorAbraham, Charlesen_UK
dc.contributor.authorAdamson, Ashley Jen_UK
dc.contributor.authorBrown, Tamara Jen_UK
dc.description.abstractIntroduction Ready‐to‐eat meals sold by food outlets that are accessible to the general public are an important target for public health intervention. We conducted a systematic review to assess the impact of such interventions. Methods Studies of any design and duration that included any consumer‐level or food‐outlet‐level before‐and‐after data were included. Results Thirty studies describing 34 interventions were categorized by type and coded against the Nuffield intervention ladder: restrict choice = trans fat law (n = 1), changing pre‐packed children's meal content (n = 1) and food outlet award schemes (n = 2); guide choice = price increases for unhealthier choices (n = 1), incentive (contingent reward) (n = 1) and price decreases for healthier choices (n = 2); enable choice = signposting (highlighting healthier/unhealthier options) (n = 10) and telemarketing (offering support for the provision of healthier options to businesses via telephone) (n = 2); and provide information = calorie labelling law (n = 12), voluntary nutrient labelling (n = 1) and personalized receipts (n = 1). Most interventions were aimed at adults in US fast food chains and assessed customer‐level outcomes. More ‘intrusive’ interventions that restricted or guided choice generally showed a positive impact on food‐outlet‐level and customer‐level outcomes. However, interventions that simply provided information or enabled choice had a negligible impact. Conclusion Interventions to promote healthier ready‐to‐eat meals sold by food outlets should restrict choice or guide choice through incentives/disincentives. Public health policies and practice that simply involve providing information are unlikely to be effective.en_UK
dc.relationHillier-Brown FC, Summerbell CD, Moore HJ, Routen A, Lake AA, Adams J, White M, Araujo-Soares V, Abraham C, Adamson AJ & Brown TJ (2017) The impact of interventions to promote healthier ready-to-eat meals (to eat in, to take away or to be delivered) sold by specific food outlets open to the general public: a systematic review: Promoting healthier food outlet meals. Obesity Reviews, 18 (2), pp. 227-246.
dc.rights© 2016 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en_UK
dc.subjectfood environmentsen_UK
dc.subjectready‐to‐eat mealsen_UK
dc.subjectsystematic reviewen_UK
dc.titleThe impact of interventions to promote healthier ready-to-eat meals (to eat in, to take away or to be delivered) sold by specific food outlets open to the general public: a systematic review: Promoting healthier food outlet mealsen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleObesity Reviewsen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.funderDurham and Newcastle Universitiesen_UK
dc.contributor.funderUK National Institute of Health Research's School for Public Health Researchen_UK
dc.contributor.funderNIHR Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care of the South West Peninsula (PenCLAHRC)en_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationDurham Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationDurham Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationDurham Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationLoughborough Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationDurham Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Cambridgeen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Cambridgeen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationNewcastle Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Exeteren_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationNewcastle Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationDurham Universityen_UK
dc.description.refREF Eligible with Permitted Exceptionen_UK
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles

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