|Appears in Collections:||Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles|
|Peer Review Status:||Refereed|
|Title:||UK smoke-free legislation: Changes in PM 2.5 concentrations in bars in Scotland, England, and Wales|
van Tongeren, Martie
Galea, Karen S
Ayres, Jon G
|Citation:||Semple S, van Tongeren M, Galea KS, Maccalman L, Gee I, Parry O, Naji A & Ayres JG (2010) UK smoke-free legislation: Changes in PM 2.5 concentrations in bars in Scotland, England, and Wales. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 54 (3), pp. 272-280. https://doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/mep094|
|Abstract:||Objective: Evaluate the effect of smoke-free legislation on fine particulate [particulate matter < 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5)] air pollution levels in bars in Scotland, England, and Wales. Design: Air quality was measured in 106 randomly selected bars in Scotland, England, and Wales before and after the introduction of smoking restrictions. Methods: PM2.5 concentrations were measured covertly for 30-min periods before smoke-free legislation was introduced, again at 1–2 months post-ban (except Wales) and then at 12-months post-baseline (except Scotland). In Scotland and England, overt measurements were carried out to assess bar workers’ full-shift personal exposures to PM2.5. Postcode data were used to determine socio-economic status of the bar location. Results: PM2.5 levels prior to smoke-free legislation were highest in Scotland (median 197 μg m−3), followed by Wales (median 184 μg m−3) and England (median 92 μg m−3). All three countries experienced a substantial reduction in PM2.5 concentrations following the introduction of the legislation with the median reduction ranging from 84 to 93%. Personal exposure reductions were also within this range. There was evidence that bars located in more deprived postcodes had higher PM2.5 levels prior to the legislation. Conclusions: Prior to legislation PM2.5 concentrations within bars across the UK were much higher than the 65 μg m−3 ‘unhealthy’ threshold for outdoor air quality as set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Concentrations in Scottish and Welsh bars were, on average, two or more times greater than in English bars for which seasonal influences may be responsible. Legislation in all three countries produced improvements in indoor air quality that are consistent with other international studies.|
|Rights:||The publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository. Please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study.|
|UK Smoke-Free Legislation Changes in PM2.5 concentrations.pdf||Fulltext - Published Version||227.56 kB||Adobe PDF||Under Permanent Embargo Request a copy|
Note: If any of the files in this item are currently embargoed, you can request a copy directly from the author by clicking the padlock icon above. However, this facility is dependent on the depositor still being contactable at their original email address.
This item is protected by original copyright
Items in the Repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.
If you believe that any material held in STORRE infringes copyright, please contact email@example.com providing details and we will remove the Work from public display in STORRE and investigate your claim.