|Appears in Collections:||Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles|
|Peer Review Status:||Refereed|
|Title:||Particulate matter exposure during domestic work in Nepal|
indoor air pollution
particulate matter (PM)
|Citation:||Kurmi O, Semple S, Steiner M, Henderson G & Ayres J (2008) Particulate matter exposure during domestic work in Nepal. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 52 (6), pp. 509-517. https://doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/men026.|
|Abstract:||Aims: To measure particulate matter (PM) exposure of people involved in domestic work (i.e. housework by a resident, not paid work) in urban and rural Nepal, with exposure to biomass smoke in the rural areas, and to examine the performance of photometric devices in collecting these data. This paper details the results of these measurements and derives calibration factors for two photometric devices compared to gravimetric measures. Methods: Between April 2006 and February 2007, respirable dust and PM 2.5 levels were measured over a 24-h period in 490 households in a range of urban and rural settings in the Kathmandu valley of Nepal. Sampling was carried out by photometric and gravimetric methods with the co-located gravimetric data used to derive a calibration factor for the photometric devices. Results: The time-weighted average (TWA) (24 h) respirable dust levels measured by gravimetric sampler ranged from 13 to 2600 μg m -3 in the rural settings and 3 to 110 μg m -3 in the urban settings. The co-located photometric and gravimetric devices indicate that the SidePak Personal Aerosol Monitor device required a calibration factor of 0.48 and 0.51 for rural and urban data, respectively, whereas the DustTrak device required a factor of 0.31 and 0.35 for rural and urban settings to correct for the particle size and density of the biomass smoke. The photometric devices provide time history data on PM concentration levels and generally indicate two distinct peaks around a morning and early evening cooking time. Conclusions: Those involved in domestic work in rural Nepal are exposed to average respirable dust concentrations of ∼1400 μg m -3. Converted to an 8-h TWA, this equates to more than the current UK limit for respirable dust (4000 μg m -3). Homemakers, primarily women, spend a large proportion of their lives indoors in these high respirable dust concentrations and these exposures are likely to produce respiratory illness. Exposure can be controlled by the use of different fuel types and/or the use of flued stoves.|
|Rights:||The publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository. Please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study.|
|Particulate Matter Exposure during Domestic Work in Nepal.pdf||Fulltext - Published Version||492.88 kB||Adobe PDF||Under Permanent Embargo Request a copy|
Note: If any of the files in this item are currently embargoed, you can request a copy directly from the author by clicking the padlock icon above. However, this facility is dependent on the depositor still being contactable at their original email address.
This item is protected by original copyright
If you believe that any material held in STORRE infringes copyright, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org providing details and we will remove the Work from public display in STORRE and investigate your claim.