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Appears in Collections:Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: The effect of exposure to biomass smoke on respiratory symptoms in adult rural and urban Nepalese populations
Author(s): Kurmi, Om P
Semple, Sean
Devereux, Graham
Gaihre, Santosh
Lam, Kin Bong Hubert
Sadhra, Steven
Steiner, Markus FC
Simkhada, Padam
Smith, William CS
Ayres, Jon G
Keywords: Respiratory symptoms
solid fuel
household air pollution
Issue Date: 6-Nov-2014
Date Deposited: 10-Apr-2018
Citation: Kurmi OP, Semple S, Devereux G, Gaihre S, Lam KBH, Sadhra S, Steiner MF, Simkhada P, Smith WC & Ayres JG (2014) The effect of exposure to biomass smoke on respiratory symptoms in adult rural and urban Nepalese populations. Environmental Health, 13, Art. No.: 92.
Abstract: Background: Half of the world's population is exposed to household air pollution from biomass burning. This study aimed to assess the relationship between respiratory symptoms and biomass smoke exposure in rural and urban Nepal.  Methods: A cross-sectional study of adults (16+ years) in a rural population (n = 846) exposed to biomass smoke and a non-exposed urban population (n = 802) in Nepal. A validated questionnaire was used along with measures of indoor air quality (PM2.5 and CO) and outdoor PM2.5.  Results: Both men and women exposed to biomass smoke reported more respiratory symptoms compared to those exposed to clean fuel. Women exposed to biomass were more likely to complain of ever wheeze (32.0 % vs. 23.5%; p = 0.004) and breathlessness (17.8% vs. 12.0%, p = 0.017) compared to males with tobacco smoking being a major risk factor. Chronic cough was similar in both the biomass and non-biomass smoke exposed groups whereas chronic phlegm was reported less frequently by participants exposed to biomass smoke. Higher PM2.5 levels (≥2 SDs of the 24-hour mean) were associated with breathlessness (OR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.47, 2.99) and wheeze (1.76, 1.37, 2.26).  Conclusions: The study suggests that while those exposed to biomass smoke had higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, urban dwellers (who were exposed to higher ambient air pollution) were more at risk of having productive cough.
DOI Link: 10.1186/1476-069X-13-92
Rights: © Kurmi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014 This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
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