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dc.contributor.authorTrigwell, Joanneen_UK
dc.contributor.authorMcGee, Ciara Een_UK
dc.contributor.authorMurphy, Rebecca Cen_UK
dc.contributor.authorPorcellato, Lornaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorUssher, Michaelen_UK
dc.contributor.authorGarnham-Lee, Katyen_UK
dc.contributor.authorKnowles, Zoe Ren_UK
dc.contributor.authorFoweather, Lawrenceen_UK
dc.description.abstractBackground: SmokeFree Sports (SFS) was a multi-component sport-for-health intervention aiming at preventing smoking among nine to ten year old primary school children from North West England. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the process and implementation of SFS, examining intervention reach, dose, fidelity, acceptability and sustainability, in order to understand the feasibility and challenges of delivering such interventions and inform interpretations of intervention effectiveness.  Methods: Process measures included: booking logs, 18 focus groups with children (n=95), semi-structured interviews with teachers (n=20) and SFS coaches (n=7), intervention evaluation questionnaires (completed by children, n=1097; teachers, n=50), as well direct observations (by researchers, n=50 observations) and self-evaluations (completed by teachers, n=125) of intervention delivery (e.g. length of sessions, implementation of activities as intended, children's engagement and barriers). Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were applied to quantitative and qualitative data, respectively.  Results: Overall, SFS reached 30.8% of eligible schools, with 1073 children participating in the intervention (across 32 schools). Thirty-one schools completed the intervention in full. Thirty-three teachers (55% female) and 11 SFS coaches (82% male) attended a bespoke SFS training workshop. Disparities in intervention duration (range=126 to 201 days), uptake (only 25% of classes received optional intervention components in full), and the extent to which core (mean fidelity score of coaching sessions=58%) and optional components (no adaptions made=51% of sessions) were delivered as intended, were apparent. Barriers to intervention delivery included the school setting and children's behaviour and knowledge. SFS was viewed positively (85% and 82% of children and teachers, respectively, rated SFS five out of five) and recommendations to increase school engagement were provided.  Conclusion: SFS was considered acceptable to children, teachers and coaches. Nevertheless, efforts to enhance intervention reach (at the school level), teachers' engagement and sustainability must be considered. Variations in dose and fidelity likely reflect challenges associated with complex intervention delivery within school settings and thus a flexible design may be necessary. This study adds to the limited scientific evidence base surrounding sport-for-health interventions and their implementation, and suggests that such interventions offer a promising tool for engaging children in activities which promote their health.en_UK
dc.publisherBioMed Centralen_UK
dc.relationTrigwell J, McGee CE, Murphy RC, Porcellato L, Ussher M, Garnham-Lee K, Knowles ZR & Foweather L (2015) Process evaluation of a sport-for-health intervention to prevent smoking amongst primary school children: SmokeFree Sports. BMC Public Health, 15, Art. No.: 347.
dc.rights© Trigwell et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015 This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.en_UK
dc.subjectprocess evaluationen_UK
dc.titleProcess evaluation of a sport-for-health intervention to prevent smoking amongst primary school children: SmokeFree Sportsen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleBMC Public Healthen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationLeeds Beckett Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationLiverpool John Moores Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationLiverpool John Moores Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationLiverpool John Moores Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationInstitute for Social Marketingen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationLoughborough Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationLiverpool John Moores Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationEdge Hill Universityen_UK
rioxxterms.apcnot requireden_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorTrigwell, Joanne|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorMcGee, Ciara E|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorMurphy, Rebecca C|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorPorcellato, Lorna|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorUssher, Michael|0000-0002-0995-7955en_UK
local.rioxx.authorGarnham-Lee, Katy|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorKnowles, Zoe R|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorFoweather, Lawrence|en_UK
local.rioxx.projectInternal Project|University of Stirling|
local.rioxx.filenameTrigwell McGee et al.pdfen_UK
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles

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