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dc.contributor.authorAboulghar, Mohameden_UK
dc.contributor.authorAlbertini, David Fen_UK
dc.contributor.authorAllen, John Fen_UK
dc.contributor.authorBhattacharya, Siladityaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorEvers, Johannes L Hen_UK
dc.contributor.authorGeraedts, Joep P Men_UK
dc.contributor.authorGlasier, Annaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorHunt, Kateen_UK
dc.contributor.authorHussein, Juliaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorLa Vecchia, Carloen_UK
dc.contributor.authorLuy, Marcen_UK
dc.contributor.authorMichaud, Pierre-Andreen_UK
dc.contributor.authorNegri, Evaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorPeters, Sanne A Een_UK
dc.contributor.authorSethi, Dineshen_UK
dc.description.abstractMale births exceed female births by 5-6% (for a sex ratio at birth of 1.05-1.06) while a women's life expectancy, on a global scale, is about 6 years longer. Thus within various age groups the male:female ratio changes over time. Until age 50 years men outnumber women; thereafter their numbers show a sharp decline. Consequently at age 80 years, there are many more women than men. An estimated 25% of this male excess mortality is due to biological causes, the rest being explained by behavioural, cultural and environmental factors. For both women and men, the main health risks related to lifestyle are smoking, alcohol, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. In the year 2010, overweight (BMI: 25-29 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI: >30 kg/m2) were responsible for over 3 million deaths, with similar relative risks in men and women for overweight and obesity. Smoking and alcohol are the major causes of the global gender gap in mortality. For women in some parts of the world however pregnancy is also hazardous. On a global scale, in 2013 about 300 000 deaths were related to pregnancy, with sub-Saharan Africa registering the highest maternal mortality: over 500 maternal deaths per 100 000 births. Additional woman's health risks arise from gender discrimination, including sex-selective abortion, violence against women and early child marriage. Providers should be aware of the effect that these risks can have on both reproductive and general health. © 2016 The Author.en_UK
dc.publisherOxford University Pressen_UK
dc.relationAboulghar M, Albertini DF, Allen JF, Bhattacharya S, Evers JLH, Geraedts JPM, Glasier A, Hunt K, Hussein J, La Vecchia C, Luy M, Michaud P, Negri E, Peters SAE & Sethi D (2016) The influence of social factors on gender health. Human Reproduction, 31 (8), pp. 1631-1637.
dc.rightsThis is a pre-copyedited, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Human Reproduction following peer review. The version of record ESHRE Capri Workshop Group; The influence of social factors on gender health, Human Reproduction, Volume 31, Issue 8, 1 August 2016, Pages 1631–1637 is available online at:
dc.subjectlife expectancyen_UK
dc.subjectsex selective abortionen_UK
dc.subjectearly and child marriageen_UK
dc.subjectviolence against womenen_UK
dc.titleThe influence of social factors on gender healthen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleHuman Reproductionen_UK
dc.type.statusAM - Accepted Manuscripten_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationCairo Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationCenter for Human Reproductionen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity College Londonen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Aberdeenen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Maastrichten_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Maastrichten_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Edinburghen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationInstitute for Social Marketingen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Aberdeenen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversita degli Studi di Milanoen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationAustrian Academy of Sciencesen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Lausanneen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationMario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Researchen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Oxforden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationWorld Health Organizationen_UK
rioxxterms.apcnot requireden_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorAboulghar, Mohamed|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorAlbertini, David F|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorAllen, John F|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorBhattacharya, Siladitya|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorEvers, Johannes L H|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorGeraedts, Joep P M|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorGlasier, Anna|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorHunt, Kate|0000-0002-5873-3632en_UK
local.rioxx.authorHussein, Julia|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorLa Vecchia, Carlo|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorLuy, Marc|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorMichaud, Pierre-Andre|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorNegri, Eva|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorPeters, Sanne A E|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorSethi, Dinesh|en_UK
local.rioxx.projectInternal Project|University of Stirling|
local.rioxx.filenameAllen_GENDER RELATED HEALTH final 120216.pdfen_UK
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles

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