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Appears in Collections:Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: An interview study of pregnant women who were provided with indoor air quality measurements of second hand smoke to help them quit smoking
Author(s): Morgan, Heather
Treasure, Elizabeth
Tabib, Mo
Johnston, Majella
Dunkley, Chris
Ritchie, Deborah
Semple, Sean
Turner, Steve
Keywords: Indoor air quality (IAQ)
Second hand smoke (SHS)
Smoking cessation services
Child health
Behaviour change
Qualitative health research
Issue Date: 12-Oct-2016
Citation: Morgan H, Treasure E, Tabib M, Johnston M, Dunkley C, Ritchie D, Semple S & Turner S (2016) An interview study of pregnant women who were provided with indoor air quality measurements of second hand smoke to help them quit smoking, BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 16 (1), Art. No.: 305.
Abstract: Background:  Maternal smoking can cause health complications in pregnancy. Particulate matter (PM2.5) metrics applied to second hand smoke (SHS) concentrations provide indoor air quality (IAQ) measurements and have been used to promote smoking behaviour change among parents of young children. Here, we present the qualitative results from a study designed to use IAQ measurements to help pregnant women who smoke to quit smoking.  Methods:  We used IAQ measurements in two centres (Aberdeen and Coventry) using two interventions: 1. In Aberdeen, women made IAQ measurements in their homes following routine ultrasound scan; 2. In Coventry, IAQ measurements were added to a home-based Stop Smoking in Pregnancy Service. All women were invited to give a qualitative interview to explore acceptability and feasibility of IAQ measurements to help with smoking cessation. A case study approach using grounded theory was applied to develop a typology of pregnant women who smoke.  Results:  There were 39 women recruited (18 in Aberdeen and 21 in Coventry) and qualitative interviews were undertaken with nine of those women. Diverse accounts of smoking behaviours and experiences of participation were given. Many women reported changes to their smoking behaviours during pregnancy. Most women wanted to make further changes to their own behaviour, but could not commit or felt constrained by living with a partner or family members who smoked. Others could not envisage quitting. Using themes emerging from the interviews, we constructed a typology where women were classified as follows: 'champions for change'; 'keen, but not committed'; and 'can't quit, won't quit'. Three women reported quitting smoking alongside participation in our study.  Conclusions:  Pregnant women who smoke remain hard to engage,. Although providing IAQ measurements does not obviously improve quit rates, it can support changes in smoking behaviour in/around the home for some individuals. Our typology might offer a useful assessment tool for midwives.
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Rights: © The Author(s). 2016 This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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