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Title: Economic model of a professional football club in France
Author(s): Scelles, Nicolas
Andreff, Wladimir
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Editor(s): Chanavat, N
Desbordes, M
Lorgnier, N
Citation: Scelles N & Andreff W (2017) Economic model of a professional football club in France. In: Chanavat N, Desbordes M & Lorgnier N (eds.) Routledge handbook of football marketing. Routledge International Handbooks. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 60-72.
Issue Date: 31-Mar-2017
Date Deposited: 21-Nov-2017
Series/Report no.: Routledge International Handbooks
Abstract: The economic model of football clubs is a revenue model, but also a cost model in relation to their objective. It can be defined as the search for balance between revenues, costs and objective, and the latter can vary: profit maximization, sporting maximization under strict constraint (“hard” constraint) or “soft” budget constraint (Andreff, 2009). In France, the revenue model of football clubs has evolved with time. This mutation fits in the switch from an SSSL (Spectators-Subventions-Sponsors-Local) model to an MMMMG (Media-Magnats-Merchandising-Markets-Global) model at the European level (Andreff and Staudohar, 2000). Before 1914, sport financing came mainly from practitioners (Bourg and Gouguet, 2001, p. 19). Thereafter, with competitions being a spectacle, spectators have become the primary source of revenue, ahead of the subsidies granted by the local authorities and industry patrons. Advertising revenues have gradually become more and more important, and in the 1960s and 1970s, sponsorship increased significantly as firms were seeking a more direct identification in terms of audience, image, reputation and sales (Andreff and Staudohar, 2000, p. 259). In France, during the 1970s, operating revenues of first division football clubs came mainly from the spectators, supplemented by subsidies and sponsorship. The SSSL model was at its peak, with its “L” finding its justification in the fact that the revenues were generated from local or national residents.
Rights: This item has been embargoed for a period. During the embargo please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study. This is an Accepted Manuscript of a chapter published by Taylor & Francis Group in Routledge Handbook of Football Marketing, ed. by N Chavanat, M Desbordes, and N Lorgnier on 23 Mar 2017, available online:

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