Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1893/26150
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Trunk muscle activation in the back and hack squat at the same relative loads
Author(s): Clark, David R
Lambert, Michael
Hunter, Angus
Contact Email: d.r.clark@stir.ac.uk
Keywords: back squat
hack squat
trunk muscles
neuromuscular
electromyography
corestability
Issue Date: Jul-2019
Citation: Clark DR, Lambert M & Hunter A (2019) Trunk muscle activation in the back and hack squat at the same relative loads. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 33 (Supplement 1), pp. S60-S69. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000002144
Abstract: The hack squat (HS) is likely to produce a greater 1 repetition maximum (1RM) compared with the back squat (BS). This can be attributed to the support of the trunk during the HS compared with no support during BS. This support, however, may compromise trunk muscle activation (TMA), therefore producing different training adaptations. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to compare 1RM in BS and HS and TMA at 4 relative loads, 65, 75, 85, and 95% of maximal system mass. Ten males completed 3 test sessions: (a) BS and HS 1RM, (b) HS and BS neuromuscular test familiarization, and (c) neuromuscular test for 3 reps at 4 loads for BS and HS. Back squat TMA was significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) than HS for all muscles and phases except rectus abdominus in concentric phase. Trunk muscle activation increased (p ≤ 0.05) with load in all muscles for both exercises and phases apart from lumbar sacral erector spinae in HS eccentric phase. Mean HS 1RM and submaximal loads were significantly (p < 0.0001) higher than the equivalent BS loads. Duration of the eccentric phase was higher (p < 0.01) in HS than BS but not different in concentric phase. Duration increased significantly (p < 0.01) with load in both exercises and both phases. Despite higher absolute tests loads in HS, TMA was higher in BS. Trunk muscle activation is sensitive to load in both exercises. Back squat is more effective than HS in activating the muscles of the trunk and therefore, arguably more effective in developing trunk strength and stability for dynamic athletic performance.
DOI Link: 10.1519/jsc.0000000000002144
Rights: This item has been embargoed for a period. During the embargo please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study. Publisher policy allows this work to be made available in this repository. Clark DR, Lambert M & Hunter A (2019) Trunk muscle activation in the back and hack squat at the same relative loads. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 33 (Supplement 1), pp. S60-S69. This is not the final published version. That version is available at: https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002144

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