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dc.contributor.authorWheeler, Michaelen_UK
dc.description.abstractSome thinkers have claimed that expert performance with technology is characterized by a kind of disappearance of that technology from conscious experience, that is, by the transparency of the tools and equipment through which we sense and manipulate the world. This is a claim that may be traced to phenomenological philosophers such as Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty, but it has been influential in user interface design where the transparency of technology has often been adopted as a mark of good design. Moreover, in the philosophy of cognitive science, such transparency has been advanced as necessary for extended cognition (the situation in which the technology with which we couple genuinely counts as a constitutive part of our cognitive machinery, along with our brains). By reflecting on concrete examples of our contemporary engagement with technology, I shall argue that the epistemic challenges posed by smart artefacts (those that come equipped with artificial-intelligencebased applications) should prompt a reassessment of the drive for transparency in the design of some cases of technology-involving cognition. This has consequences for the place of extended minds in the contemporary technological context.en_UK
dc.relationWheeler M (2018) The Reappearing Tool: Transparency, Smart Technology and the Extended Mind (Forthcoming/Available Online), AI and Society.
dc.rights© The Author(s) 2018 This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.en_UK
dc.subjectartificial intelligenceen_UK
dc.subjectextended cognitionen_UK
dc.subjectuser interface designen_UK
dc.subjectskilled tool useen_UK
dc.subjectphenomenological transparencyen_UK
dc.titleThe Reappearing Tool: Transparency, Smart Technology and the Extended Mind (Forthcoming/Available Online)en_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.citation.jtitleAI & societyen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.description.refREF Compliant by Deposit in Stirling's Repositoryen_UK
Appears in Collections:Law and Philosophy Journal Articles

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