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Appears in Collections:Aquaculture eTheses
Title: Haematoprotozoan parasites of marine fishes with special reference to mariculture
Author(s): Kirmse, Peter D.
Issue Date: 1978
Publisher: University of Stirling
Abstract: This research study is divided into 4 major sections. Section A deals with the world-wide distribution of the haematoprotozoan parasites of marine fishes. These are tentatively divided into 3 major groups: the Haemogregarines, the Trypanosomes and the Trypanoplasms and one group of ill defined and controversal organisms including Haemohormidium sp. and Dactylosoma sp. The results of extensive surveys of the coastal waters of France, Scotland and Wales with added examples from the Mediterranean Sea substantiate the zoogeographical distribution of these parasites. Two species of haematoprotozoan parasites Haemogregarina simondi and Trypanosoma soleae are re-described, earlier accounts dating from the beginning of the century being considered incomplete. A new species of haemogregarine is described from the farmed turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) as Haemogregarina sachai n. sp. and an unidentified species of Haemohormidium found occasionally in turbot and Dover sole (Solea soles) is also described. In addition Haemogregarina sp. were encountered in certain wild marine fish from the Atlantic coast of France e. g. Zeus faber, Sebastes sp., Trisopterus luscus, Pagellus bogaraveo and Raja sp. and from the coastal waters of Malta e. g. Peristedion cataphractum and Oblade melanura. However, they were not found in sufficient numbers to allow a definite description. The value of surveys of wild fish populations is discussed in the light of zoogeographical distribution, the apparent periodicity of these parasites and a seasonal variation of parasitism. Section B attempts to summarize the knowledge of the mode of transmission of marine haematoprotozoan parasites by piscicolid leeches as intermediate hosts and vectors. The developmental stages of a trypanosome, probably Trypanosoma murmanensis from the Atlantic cod Gadus morhua are described in the marine leech Calliobdella nodulifera. Stages of a haemogregaririe were observed in the same leech. The development of the turbot haemogregarine Haemogregarina sachai n. sp. in artificially infected leeches is also described up to the 20th day post infection. Transmission of this haemogregarine to apparently uninfected turbot via this leech was not successful. Various stages of development of Haemogregarina simondi are described in its apparently natural vector, the marine leech Hemibdella soleae, and transmission with infected leeches to apparently healthy hatchery reared soles was achieved. Thus it was shown for the first time that marine leeches can serve also as vectors for haemogregarines. Stages of this haemogregarine are also described in the blood-sucking ectoparasitic copepod Lernaeocera sp. parasitizing the haemogregarine infected soles. These results are discussed in relation to the feeding behaviour and migration patterns of the fish hosts, the periodicity of the parasites and possible other vectors or other ways of acquiring an infection with these haematoprotozoan parasites. In Section C the pathogenicity of the haematoprotozoan parasites of marine fishes is summarized from previous accounts among wild fish populations and compared with the situation in aquaculture. The pathogenicity of the two haemogregarines, Haemogregarina simondi and Haemogregarina sachai n. sp., accidentally introduced into several fish farming establishments connected with the effluent cooling waters of a nuclear power station is described with special reference to the possible source of the infection. The results of therapy trials and control programs are discussed in the light of the periodic reappearance of the parasites, the possibility of carrier fish existing, the immune status of the host and the possible role of an intermediate host or vector in maintaining the infection. Possible means of controlling the pathogenicity of marine haemogregarines and perhaps other haematoprotozoan parasites when they occur in farmed marine fishes are also discussed. In Section D are described for the first time, the ultrastructural characteristics of various stages of the haematoprotozoan parasites of marine fishes in fish hosts and vectors. The electronmicroscopical studies are limited to Haemogregarina sachai n. sp. and Haemogregarina simondi, for which the ultrastructure of schizonts from the spleen and blood, intracellular merozoites and free gametocytes were contrasted. In addition stages of H. simondi were demonstrated in Hemibdella soleae and Lernaeocera sp. The fine structure of the various organelles encountered was compared with that of related organisms from other cold-and warm-blooded vertebrates. In conclusion attention is drawn to the need for more investigations in this field of host-parasite relationship of marine haematoprotozoan parasites and their vectors and their pathogenic-action as seen in a confined and artificial environment such as the marine aquaculture.
Type: Thesis or Dissertation
Affiliation: School of Natural Sciences

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