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Appears in Collections:Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: MR elastography measurement of the effect of passive warmup prior to eccentric exercise on thigh muscle mechanical properties
Author(s): Kennedy, Paul
Macgregor, Lewis James
Barnhill, Eric
Johnson, Curtis
Perrins, Michael
Hunter, Angus
Brown, Colin
van Beek, Edwin J R
Roberts, Neil
Keywords: exercise induced muscle damage
MR elastography
Issue Date: Oct-2017
Citation: Kennedy P, Macgregor LJ, Barnhill E, Johnson C, Perrins M, Hunter A, Brown C, van Beek EJR & Roberts N (2017) MR elastography measurement of the effect of passive warmup prior to eccentric exercise on thigh muscle mechanical properties. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 46 (4), pp. 1115-1127.
Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the effect of warmup by application of the thermal agent Deep Heat (DH) on muscle mechanical properties using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) at 3T before and after exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD).  Materials and Methods: Twenty male participants performed an individualized protocol designed to induce EIMD in the quadriceps. DH was applied to the thigh in 50% of the participants before exercise. MRE, T2-weighted MRI, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), creatine kinase (CK) concentration, and muscle soreness were measured before and after the protocol to assess EIMD effects. Five participants were excluded: four having not experienced EIMD and one due to incidental findings.  Results: Total workload performed during the EIMD protocol was greater in the DH group than the control group (P < 0.03), despite no significant differences in baseline MVC (P=0.23). Shear stiffness |G*| increased in the rectus femoris (RF) muscle in both groups (P < 0.03); however, DH was not a significant between-group factor (P= 0.15). MVC values returned to baseline faster in the DH group (5 days) than the control group (7 days). Participants who displayed hyperintensity on T2-weighted images had a greater stiffness increase following damage than those without: RF; 0.61 kPa vs. 0.15 kPa, P < 0.006, vastus intermedius; 0.34 kPa vs. 0.03 kPa, P =0.06.  Conclusion: EIMD produces increased muscle stiffness as measured by MRE, with the change in |G*| significantly increased when T2 hyperintensity was present. DH did not affect CK concentration or soreness; however, DH participants produced greater workload during the EIMD protocol and exhibited accelerated MVC recovery.  Level of Evidence: 1. 
DOI Link: 10.1002/jmri.25642
Rights: © 2017 The Authors Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
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