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dc.contributor.authorMalloch, Margareten_UK
dc.contributor.authorMcIvor, Gillen_UK
dc.contributor.authorSchinkel, Margueriteen_UK
dc.contributor.authorArmstrong, Sarahen_UK
dc.description.abstractThis report forms Part 1 of a two-part review of the elements of effective through-care. It examines the international evidence in order to identify practice that appears to be effective, alongside areas that may hinder effective interventions. Part 2 examines this evidence alongside a review of practice in Scotland. The available evidence, consisting of international research and practice evaluations, clearly highlights the practical issues that prisoners experience at the point of release and transition into the community. These issues often appear more entrenched for short-term prisoners for whom rates of reconviction are highest. The review confirms that already existing difficulties in areas such as accommodation, income, employment, drug and alcohol problems can actually deteriorate after release from custody, and imprisonment may serve to further marginalise particular groups (for example women, young and elderly prisoners, and minority ethnic groups). While programmes in prison may help prepare prisoners for release, according to international research and evaluations these programmes will have greater impact if stable accommodation and employment opportunities are available in the community. Reductions in reoffending appear to be directly related to the availability of support following release, with international evidence suggesting that after-care may be as important as the provision of interventions during the period of custody. Through-care is intended to ensure processes are in place to support prisoners as they move back into their local communities and, to some extent, mitigate the worst effects of detrimental social and economic factors which affect the lives of many people processed by the criminal justice system. There is significant variation regarding the legislative context of through-care provision which can consist of both policy and statutory bases; varying across countries but also across regions and local states within a national framework. The provision of support at this transitional stage can reduce the likelihood of reoffending. Internationally, challenges to the provision of through-care arise from fragmentation of services, under-funding and a limited evidence base for service development. While this review drew on an extensive range of international literature, there are a number of limitations in the evidence available and very little evidence of outcomes obtained as a direct result of through-care services. Differences are evident between academic or independent reviews of through-care provision and project evaluations or policy analysis. Different methodological approaches can also hamper attempts to consider evidence comparatively and an over-reliance on reconviction data often obscures many of the ‘softer' measures which are present in the process of (re)-integration. However, despite these caveats, there is sufficient evidence from which a number of conclusions may be drawn with regard to through-care provision.en_UK
dc.publisherScottish Centre for Crime and Justice Researchen_UK
dc.relationMalloch M, McIvor G, Schinkel M & Armstrong S (2013) The Elements of Effective Through-care - Part 1: International Review. Scottish Government - Community Justice Services. SCCJR Research Reports, 3/2013. Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research.
dc.relation.ispartofseriesSCCJR Research Reports, 3/2013en_UK
dc.rightsThe publisher has not yet responded to our queries therefore this work cannot be made publicly available in this Repository. Please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study.en_UK
dc.subjectEx-convicts Services foren_UK
dc.subjectCriminals Rehabilitationen_UK
dc.subjectCriminal behavior, Prediction ofen_UK
dc.titleThe Elements of Effective Through-care - Part 1: International Reviewen_UK
dc.typeResearch Reporten_UK
dc.contributor.sponsorScottish Government - Community Justice Servicesen_UK
dc.rights.embargoreason[International_Through-care_Review.pdf] The publisher has not yet responded to our queries. This work cannot be made publicly available in this Repository therefore there is an embargo on the full text of the work.en_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationApplied Social Scienceen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationApplied Social Scienceen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Glasgowen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Glasgowen_UK
rioxxterms.typeTechnical Reporten_UK
local.rioxx.authorMalloch, Margaret|0000-0003-3655-7874en_UK
local.rioxx.authorMcIvor, Gill|0000-0002-7147-2078en_UK
local.rioxx.authorSchinkel, Marguerite|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorArmstrong, Sarah|en_UK
local.rioxx.projectInternal Project|University of Stirling|
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Social Sciences Research Reports

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