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Appears in Collections:Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: The reproducibility of acquiring three dimensional gait and plantar pressure data using established protocols in participants with and without type 2 diabetes and foot ulcers
Author(s): Fernando, Malindu
Crowther, Robert
Cunningham, Margaret
Lazzarini, Peter
Sangla, Kunwarjit
Buttner, Petra
Golledge, Jonathan
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Keywords: Diabetic foot
Reproducibility of results
Plantar pressure
Foot ulcer
Issue Date: 29-Jan-2016
Date Deposited: 24-Aug-2016
Citation: Fernando M, Crowther R, Cunningham M, Lazzarini P, Sangla K, Buttner P & Golledge J (2016) The reproducibility of acquiring three dimensional gait and plantar pressure data using established protocols in participants with and without type 2 diabetes and foot ulcers. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 9, Art. No.: 4.
Abstract: Background  Several prospective studies have suggested that gait and plantar pressure abnormalities secondary to diabetic peripheral neuropathy contributes to foot ulceration. There are many different methods by which gait and plantar pressures are assessed and currently there is no agreed standardised approach. This study aimed to describe the methods and reproducibility of three-dimensional gait and plantar pressure assessments in a small subset of participants using pre-existing protocols.  Methods  Fourteen participants were conveniently sampled prior to a planned longitudinal study; four patients with diabetes and plantar foot ulcers, five patients with diabetes but no foot ulcers and five healthy controls. The repeatability of measuring key biomechanical data was assessed including the identification of 16 key anatomical landmarks, the measurement of seven leg dimensions, the processing of 22 three-dimensional gait parameters and the analysis of four different plantar pressures measures at 20 foot regions.  Results  The mean inter-observer differences were within the pre-defined acceptable level (<7mm) for 100% (16 of 16) of key anatomical landmarks measured for gait analysis. The intra-observer assessment concordance correlation coefficients were > 0.9 for 100% (7 of 7) of leg dimensions. The coefficients of variations (CVs) were within the pre-defined acceptable level (<10%) for 100% (22 of 22) of gait parameters. The CVs were within the pre-defined acceptable level (<30%) for 95% (19 of 20) of the contact area measures, 85% (17 of 20) of mean plantar pressures, 70% (14 of 20) of pressure time integrals and 55% (11 of 20) of maximum sensor plantar pressure measures.  Conclusion  Overall, the findings of this study suggest that important gait and plantar pressure measurements can be reliably acquired. Nearly all measures contributing to three-dimensional gait parameter assessments were within predefined acceptable limits. Most plantar pressure measurements were also within predefined acceptable limits; however, reproducibility was not as good for assessment of the maximum sensor pressure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the reproducibility of several biomechanical methods in a heterogeneous cohort.
DOI Link: 10.1186/s13047-016-0135-8
Rights: © Fernando et al. 2016 This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
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