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dc.contributor.authorMcLeod, Janeen_UK
dc.contributor.authorGell, Lucyen_UK
dc.contributor.authorHolmes, Johnen_UK
dc.contributor.authorAllamani, Allamanen_UK
dc.contributor.authorBjerge, Baggaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorBuhringer, Gerharden_UK
dc.contributor.authorForberger, Sarahen_UK
dc.contributor.authorFrank, Vibekeen_UK
dc.contributor.authorLingford-Hughes, Anneen_UK
dc.contributor.authorMeier, Petraen_UK
dc.contributor.authorNeumann, Mariaen_UK
dc.contributor.authorRoom, Robinen_UK
dc.contributor.authorBaumberg, Benen_UK
dc.contributor.authorEiroa-Orosa, Francisco Joseen_UK
dc.contributor.authorStead, Martineen_UK
dc.contributor.editorGell, Len_UK
dc.contributor.editorBühringer, Gen_UK
dc.contributor.editorMcLeod, Jen_UK
dc.contributor.editorForberger, Sen_UK
dc.contributor.editorHolmes, Jen_UK
dc.contributor.editorLingford-Hughes, Aen_UK
dc.contributor.editorMeier, PSen_UK
dc.description.abstractFirst paragraph: That certain behaviour in a particular situation entails high risks is a perception that does not require human consciousness; indeed, perceiving or failing to perceive risk has been through the eons a sure means of Darwinian selection. A mouse that sees the shadow of an owl will take action ( or freeze to evade notice) because of the immediate risk. Throughout human history, people have taken risks into account in how they behave. The risks have sometimes been tangible, as in the risk of injury in falling off a cliff, and sometimes intangible and a matter of belief, as in the risk of eternal damnation for doing something sinful. Often the calculation of risk combines elements that are tangible and measurable, and elements that are a matter of morals or conviction. Positivist research in the field of substance use and gambling behaviour is driven to measure the inherent risk of such behaviours. This quantification uses statistical methods to estimate the probability of outcomes for a specific variable. For example, we can calculate 'relative risk: which is the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (e.g. developing liver cirrhosis or having a car crash) in an exposed group (e.g. heavy drinkers) to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, nonexposed group (e.g. non- or moderate drinkers). However, the exact level of consumption at which use become risky or harmful has been modified over time, in response to changing knowledge and societal perspectives. For example, in the context of alcohol brief interventions (a short, structured conversation about alcohol consumption that seeks in a non-confrontational way to motivate and support an individual to think about and/or plan a change in their drinking behaviour) the definition of risky drinking was set by the WHO at an average of more than 20 (women) or 40 (men) grams of alcohol per day (Heather, 2006), even if more recent publications tend to lower such limits to around 12 and 25 grams (Schi.itze et al., 2011).  Additional co-authors: Rosie Lees, Gert-Jan Meerkerk, Laura Schmidt, Dike van de Mheen, and Reinout Wiers.en_UK
dc.publisherOxford University Pressen_UK
dc.relationMcLeod J, Gell L, Holmes J, Allamani A, Bjerge B, Buhringer G, Forberger S, Frank V, Lingford-Hughes A, Meier P, Neumann M, Room R, Baumberg B, Eiroa-Orosa FJ & Stead M (2016) Determinants of risky substance use and risky gambling. In: Gell L, Bühringer G, McLeod J, Forberger S, Holmes J, Lingford-Hughes A & Meier P (eds.) What Determines Harm from Addictive Substances and Behaviours?. Governance of Addictive Substances and Behaviours Series. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 35-75.〈=en&#en_UK
dc.relation.ispartofseriesGovernance of Addictive Substances and Behaviours Seriesen_UK
dc.rightsThe publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository. Please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study.en_UK
dc.titleDeterminants of risky substance use and risky gamblingen_UK
dc.typePart of book or chapter of booken_UK
dc.rights.embargoreason[Chapter 3.pdf] The publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository therefore there is an embargo on the full text of the work.en_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.citation.btitleWhat Determines Harm from Addictive Substances and Behaviours?en_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Sheffielden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Sheffielden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Sheffielden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationRegions for Health Network (RHN)en_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationAarhus Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationDresden University of Technologyen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationDresden University of Technologyen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationAarhus Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Londonen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Sheffielden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationDresden University of Technologyen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationStockholm Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Kenten_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of East Londonen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationInstitute for Social Marketingen_UK
rioxxterms.typeBook chapteren_UK
local.rioxx.authorMcLeod, Jane|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorGell, Lucy|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorHolmes, John|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorAllamani, Allaman|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorBjerge, Bagga|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorBuhringer, Gerhard|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorForberger, Sarah|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorFrank, Vibeke|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorLingford-Hughes, Anne|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorMeier, Petra|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorNeumann, Maria|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorRoom, Robin|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorBaumberg, Ben|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorEiroa-Orosa, Francisco Jose|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorStead, Martine|0000-0002-3066-4604en_UK
local.rioxx.projectInternal Project|University of Stirling|
local.rioxx.contributorGell, L|en_UK
local.rioxx.contributorBühringer, G|en_UK
local.rioxx.contributorMcLeod, J|en_UK
local.rioxx.contributorForberger, S|en_UK
local.rioxx.contributorHolmes, J|en_UK
local.rioxx.contributorLingford-Hughes, A|en_UK
local.rioxx.contributorMeier, PS|en_UK
local.rioxx.filenameChapter 3.pdfen_UK
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Book Chapters and Sections

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