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Title: Biodiversity and sustainability in the Bulungan Research Forest, East Kalimantan, Indonesia: the response of plant species to logging
Author(s): Samsoedin, Ismayadi
Supervisor(s): Proctor, J.
Hopkins, David W.
Keywords: logging
primary forest
logged forest
bulk density
soil nutrients
Issue Date: 2006
Publisher: University of Stirling
Abstract: This study reports forest structure, regeneration and the soil properties from unlogged and logged forest in the Bulungan Research Forest, Malinau District, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Four sites were compared by using four 1-ha replicate plots in each of primary forest (PF), 5, 10 and 30-yr old logged forest (LF-5, LF-10, LF- 30). The tree species composition differ among forest types, as it was shown that the mean value of similarity indices for all pairs were 0.215 (for the Jaccard index) and 0.353 (for the Sorensen index). The low values for similarities among forest types were most probably caused by low numbers of species shared between each forest type. Both correlation values, r = 0.023 for Jaccard index and r = 0.031 for Sorensen index, showed no strong correlation between the similarity index (C) and the distance between forest types. This supports the use of a chronosequence approach. A total of 914 tree species with ³ 10 cm dbh were recorded from 223 genera and 65 families. There were no significant differences in mean species numbers (166 – 180/ha) among treatments. Mean density of species was lower in LF-5 and LF-10 (501/ha) than in PF or LF-30 (605/ha and 577/ha); similarly to mean basal area (LF-5, 28.5 m2/ha; LF-10, 32.6 m2/ha) vs. PF (45.8 m2/ha) and LF-30 (46.9 m2/ha). Dead wood on the forest floor was significantly higher in LF-10 (75 m3/ha) than in the other treatments. Seedlings (< 2 cm dbh) of 1,022 species were recorded from 408 genera and 111 families. The mean number of tree seedling species ranged between 170-206; the mean density of seedlings was about two-fold lower in LF-10 (2790/ha) than in the other treatments. Saplings (>2 – 9.9 cm dbh) of 802 species belonged to 241 genera and 65 families. There was a high variability in species richness across treatments (89 – 191/ha), but not in stem numbers. The Dipterocarpaceae family was dominant in all treatments, followed by the Euphorbiaceae. The soils were acidic, low in nutrients and had low to very low fertility. Both primary and logged forest areas are marginal or not suitable for sustained production of plantation crops. Logging caused soil compaction in LF-30. Although in terms of number of species and trees, amount of BA, number of saplings and seedlings LF-30 appeared to have satisfied prescriptions for a second harvest, ecologically the forest is far from mature. The Indonesian Selective Cutting and Replanting (TPTI) system may need to be revised to a 35 – 45 year cycle to ensure long-term forest productivity in terms of not only timber but other goods and ecosystem services, the value of which are never quantified in monetary terms, but can be higher than the timber revenue.
Type: Thesis or Dissertation
Affiliation: School of Natural Sciences
Biological and Environmental Sciences

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