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|Appears in Collections:||Aquaculture eTheses|
|Title:||The effect of low marine ingredient feeds on the growth performance body composition and health status of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)|
|Author(s):||Metochis, Christoforos P|
low marine ingredient diets
|Publisher:||University of Stirling|
|Abstract:||Fish meals (FM) and fish oils (FO) are used extensively as the main protein and lipid sources respectively in industrially compounded salmon feeds, mainly due to their excellent nutritional properties. Nevertheless, several reasons dictate the utilisation of sustainable alternative protein and lipid sources and the subsequent reduction in the reliance on fishery-products in aquafeeds. Soy protein concentrate (SPC) is a very promising alternative to FM Hence, the main objective of the present thesis was to investigate the effects of the increased substitution of FM withSPC, lysine and methionine on the growth performance and immune responses of early and late stage Atlantic salmon parr prior to and after vaccination with commercial vaccines (Experiments II and V presented in Chapters 4 and 6). Furthermore the effects of increasing dietary levels of SPC with consistent and/or increasing dietary supplementation of phosphorus on the Atlantic salmon parr’ body proximate and mineral composition or the skeletal mineral composition respectively, prior and post-vaccination with commercial vaccines; under continuous light or under 12 hours light: 12 hours dark photoperiod (Experiments I and V presented in Chapters 3 and 5 respectively). Lastly the impact of FM-, FO- and fishery-free diets on the growth, carcass proximate composition and immune status of Atlantic salmon post-smolts was investigated (Experiment III presented in Chapter 7). In the latter experiment six diets were tested including: two commercially applied marine based diets, one with partial inclusion of vegetable proteins (VPs) and oils (VOs) according to the EU standards (2011-12) (MBE) and one with partial inclusion of VPs, VOs and land animal-by product (ABP) proteins according to the non-EU standards (MBABP); a fully vegetable protein (VP) diet; a fully algal and vegetable oil (VO) diet; a marine-free VP and VO and algal oil diet (VP/VO) diet; and a marine-free diet with a mix of VPs and land ABP proteins and lipid from VOs and algal oils (MFABP). The results of the Experiments I and II (Chapters 3 and 4) show that late Atlantic salmon parr can grow efficiently on SPC80 diets, however, they require longer periods to adapt to these diets compared to fish fed diets containing lower levels of SPC as a protein source. Decreased mineralisation of body cross-section was observed for salmon fed increasing dietary SPC. Vaccination improved mineralisation for the high dietary SPC salmon groups. However, continuous light exposure promoting fast growth appeared to be detrimental for Atlantic salmon body cross ash, Ca, Mg, Mn, P and Zn. Moreover, it was demonstrated that substitution of up to 50% of high quality FM protein with SPC and constantly added P has the minimum possible impact on late salmon parr growth, whereas it stimulates several immune parameters prior to immunisation. Immunostimulatory effects were also shown for the diets with higher dietary SPC levels. It is not clear if these results were an effect of increased FM replacement with SPC or not properly balanced levels of dietary P. The Experiments III and IV (Chapters 5 and 6) illustrated that early stage Atlantic salmon parr can accept diets with up to 58% protein from SPC without serious effects on body growth. However, higher levels can severely affect salmon growth performance. Moreover, it was shown that long-term feeding of salmon with increasing dietary SPC combined with increasing phosphate supplementation, alone or in combination with vaccination can actually be beneficial for Atlantic salmon parr bone mineralisation. However, mineralisation in vaccinated fish was higher than in PBS-injected fish. This could be linked to the slower growth of vaccinated salmon allowing their developing bones to mineralise properly. Changes in the modulation of the different components of the complement activity was revealed in Atlantic salmon fed increasing dietary levels of SPC. The modulation of complement activity was demonstrated at both studies utilising increasing dietary SPC concentrations, indicating that complement componenets are among the most prominent immunological markers upon dietary FM replacement with SPC. However, overall no differences in total complement activity and therefore the immune capacity and resistance against Aeromonas salmonicida were observed among the salmon groups receiving increasing levels of SPC. Lastly in Experiment V (Chapter 7) higher growth performance indices (weight gain, SGR and TGC) were evident in the MBE salmon compared to the MBABP group, salmon fed diets with complete eleimintion of FM or FO (VP and VO respectively) and fish fed two diets with total substitution of both marine derived feed ingredients, three months after the start of the feeding trial. Higher feed intake was demonstrated for both MBE and VP salmon compared to the other groups for the duration of the first period. The above results could have been influenced by discrepancies in the size of the fish at the start ofthe trial, revealing flaws in the experimental design. Both MBE and VP salmon groups also presented the highest feed conversion ratios, revealing the lowest efficiency in dietary nutrient utilisation in comparison to the rest of salmon which exhibited no differences in feed efficiency, revealing an overall better performance of the MBABP and diets with low levels of marine feedstuffs. Improved FI compared to the values of the first period and higher SGR and TGC values were demonstrated for salmon from the latter treatments compared to MBE and VP salmon, during the second part of the study, revealing compensatory growth for these groups. VP salmon demonstrated the highest and VO salmon the lowest condition factor values. The former finding might possibly be related with higher fat accumulation in the viscero-hepatic tissues. No differences were observed in carcass moisture, protein, fat and ash concentrations among the dietary groups of fish. Furthermore, no differences were demonstrated in terms of total and differential leucocyte counts, plasma haemolytic activity, plasma protein and total IgM levels, stimulated and non-stimulated HKM burst activity among the different dietary groups. However, lower haematocrit values were observed in the MB and VO-fed groups compared to the MFABP and VP/VO groups. Furthermore, decreased lysozyme activity was observed for all diets in contrast to the control groups, whereas FM-free diets promoted plasma anti-protease activity. The former result could have been an effect of either immune or stress induction, whereas the second is regarded as an immunostimulatory effect. The results suggest that marine-oil, marine-protein and marine-free diets could be satisfactorily used for Atlantic salmon post-smolts without severe reductions in their innate immune responses, although longer adaptation periods might be required for the fish to fully accept these diets.|
|Type:||Thesis or Dissertation|
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