|dc.contributor.advisor||Little, David C.||-|
|dc.contributor.advisor||Baird, Donald J.||-|
|dc.description.abstract||The purpose of this research was to develop and standardize a novel feeding bioassay with Macrobrachium rosenbergii for use in the laboratory and allowing it to be easily deployed under field conditions. Standardization of the test aimed to minimize feeding rate variations and to ensure that subsequent statistical analyses have sufficient power to consistently detect changes in feeding rates. These were accomplished through the development of a post-exposure feeding toxicity test under laboratory, microcosm and in situ/field conditions. This procedure was proven to be repeatable and economical. M. rosenbergii as test animals were available in terms of quantity and uniformity in sizes.
The standard guidelines and procedures for M. rosenbergii bioassay developed from this study include the size of test animals (9-10 mm), density in exposure containers (10 animals in 500 mL of medium in the laboratory, 10 animals in field chambers with 98.6 mL volume), exposure time (24 hours), feeding period for post-exposure feeding (4 hours) and number of replicates for the feeding test (10 replicates for individual measurements).
The tiered approach used in the preliminary risk assessment of pesticide using TOXSWA was capable of screening the risk level of pesticide in the study area, identifying profenofos and dimethoate as test chemicals for the lethal and sub-lethal experiments. This model was beneficial in the preliminary risk assessment of pesticides in the tropics, since it was not necessary to set up laboratory work. This method could also provide preliminary data to support the environmental planner and decision/policy maker. This is an alternative way to develop a cost efficient model to inform and warn the risk of pesticide use.
The effects of pH, temperature and hardness on control post-exposure feeding rates of M. rosenbergii were assessed and indicated that M. rosenbergii was very sensitive to acidic and basic conditions.
The use of post-exposure feeding inhibition as the endpoint under laboratory conditions revealed that prawns were sensitive to pesticides (chlorpyrifos, dimethoate and profenofos) and a heavy metal (zinc). Post-exposure feeding rate inhibition could be used as a sublethal endpoint as the EC50 values obtained for chlorpyrifos and zinc were lower than their lethal levels.
Mortality of prawn was also another endpoint used to define the toxicity of pesticides such as carbendazim, in which mortality occurred during exposure, but post-exposure feeding rate of the surviving animals did not decrease.
The microcosm experiments were able to link the laboratory toxicity tests and the effects observed in the field. Microcosm studies provided another dimension to studies looking at pesticide effects on aquatic systems. In this research, carbendazim affected feeding and survival rates in the microcosm set-up but in the laboratory only mortality showed a significant difference (P < 0.05).
In situ bioassays were able to show the effects of pesticides on post-exposure feeding rates using the methods developed. Post-exposure feeding rates were significantly lower than control in farms using pesticides while in uncontaminated sites (pesticide-free), the post-exposure feeding rates did not decrease. However, mortality was observed even in the uncontaminated sites which could be attributed to other factors such as low dissolved oxygen and presence of some other unidentified chemical substances. The degree of mortality and the effect on feeding rates depends not only on the type and concentration of the known pesticide but also on water quality parameters.
The basic methods developed for in situ bioassay from this research is a simple, easy and fast way to determine the effect of pesticides because the results can be seen in the field. The procedures developed and results obtained from this study can be used as a basis for further toxicity studies on M. rosenbergii and other potential tropical species.||en|
|dc.publisher||University of Stirling||en|
|dc.subject.lcsh||Shrimps Feeding and feeds||en|
|dc.title||Feeding behaviour of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii as an indicator of pesticide contamination in tropical freshwater.||en|
|dc.type||Thesis or Dissertation||en|
|dc.type.qualificationname||Doctor of Philosophy||en|
|dc.contributor.affiliation||School of Natural Sciences||-|
|Appears in Collections:||Aquaculture eTheses|