|dc.description.abstract||Background: The corrections-based therapeutic community (TC) is one of the most described treatment modalities for (substance abusing) incarcerated offenders. The origins and development of the therapeutic community have been traced back to two independent traditions: the American hierarchical concept-based TC and the British “democratic” Maxwell Jones-type TC. Both branches have developed independently, targeting different people and tackling diverse problems. Aims: To demonstrate that there are clear and undeniable similarities between the ‘two’ prison-based therapeutic communities. Method: A comparative historical review of the literature and a critical discussion and comparison. Results: The links between the democratic and hierarchic therapeutic communities are summarized under five headings: social learning and behavioural modification; permissiveness and modeling; democracy and hierarchy; communalism and community as method; reality testing and ‘acting as if’. Conclusions: The ‘two’ correction-based therapeutic communities are on converging pathways. Far from being oppositional models, they can be regarded as being complementary.||en_UK|
|dc.relation||Vandevelde S, Broekaert E, Yates R & Kooyman M (2004) The development of the therapeutic community in correctional establishments: a comparative, retrospective account of the 'democratic' Maxwell Jones TC and the 'hierarchical' concept-based TC in prison, International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 50 (1), pp. 66-79.||-|
|dc.rights||The final, definitive version of this article has been published in the journal, International Journal of Social Psychiatry, Volume 50, No. 1, 2004, © Sage Publications, Inc, 2004 by Sage Publications, Inc. at the International Journal of Social Psychiatry page: http://isp.sagepub.com/ on Sage Journals Online: http://online.sagepub.com/; Published in the International Journal of Social Psychiatry. Copyright: Sage and the International Journal of Social Psychiatry.||-|
|dc.subject.lcsh||Drug addicts Rehabilitation||-|
|dc.subject.lcsh||Drug abuse Treatment||-|
|dc.subject.lcsh||Prisoners Services for||-|
|dc.title||The development of the therapeutic community in correctional establishments: a comparative, retrospective account of the 'democratic' Maxwell Jones TC and the 'hierarchical' concept-based TC in prison||en_UK|
|dc.citation.jtitle||International Journal of Social Psychiatry||-|
|dc.type.status||Post-print (author final draft post-refereeing)||-|
|dc.contributor.affiliation||Therapeutic Community Emiliehoeve, Netherlands||-|
|Appears in Collections:||Faculty of Social Sciences Journal Articles|
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