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dc.contributor.authorBorland, Ronen_UK
dc.contributor.authorWilson, Nicholasen_UK
dc.contributor.authorFong, Geoffrey Ten_UK
dc.contributor.authorHammond, Daviden_UK
dc.contributor.authorCummings, K Michaelen_UK
dc.contributor.authorYong, Hua-Hieen_UK
dc.contributor.authorHosking, Warwicken_UK
dc.contributor.authorHastings, Gerarden_UK
dc.contributor.authorThrasher, James Fen_UK
dc.contributor.authorMcNeill, Annen_UK
dc.description.abstractObjectives: To examine the impact of health warnings on smokers by comparing the short-term impact of new graphic (2006) Australian warnings with: (i) earlier (2003) United Kingdom larger text-based warnings; (ii) and Canadian graphic warnings (late 2000); and also to extend our understanding of warning wear-out. Methods: The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey (ITC Project) follows prospective cohorts (with replenishment) of adult smokers annually (five waves: 2002-2006), in Canada, United States, UK and Australia (around 2000 per country per wave; total nā€Š=ā€Š17 773). Measures were of pack warning salience (reading and noticing); cognitive responses (thoughts of harm and quitting); and two behavioural responses: forgoing cigarettes and avoiding the warnings. Results: All four indicators of impact increased markedly among Australian smokers following the introduction of graphic warnings. Controlling for date of introduction, they stimulated more cognitive responses than the UK (text-only) changes, and were avoided more, did not significantly increase forgoing cigarettes, but were read and noticed less. The findings also extend previous work showing partial wear-out of both graphic and text-only warnings, but the Canadian warnings have more sustained effects than UK ones. Conclusions: Australia's new health warnings increased reactions that are prospectively predictive of cessation activity. Warning size increases warning effectiveness and graphic warnings may be superior to text-based warnings. While there is partial wear-out in the initial impact associated with all warnings, stronger warnings tend to sustain their effects for longer. These findings support arguments for governments to exceed minimum FCTC requirements on warnings.en_UK
dc.publisherBMJ Publishing Groupen_UK
dc.relationBorland R, Wilson N, Fong GT, Hammond D, Cummings KM, Yong H, Hosking W, Hastings G, Thrasher JF & McNeill A (2009) Impact of graphic and text warnings on cigarette packs: findings from four countries over five years. Tobacco Control, 18 (5), pp. 358-364.
dc.rightsThe publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository. Please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study.en_UK
dc.subjectAdvertising Cigarettesen_UK
dc.titleImpact of graphic and text warnings on cigarette packs: findings from four countries over five yearsen_UK
dc.typeJournal Articleen_UK
dc.rights.embargoreason[Tob Control - Impact of graphic and text warnings.pdf] The publisher does not allow this work to be made publicly available in this Repository therefore there is an embargo on the full text of the work.en_UK
dc.citation.jtitleTobacco Controlen_UK
dc.type.statusVoR - Version of Recorden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationCancer Council Victoriaen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Bradforden_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Waterlooen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Waterlooen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationRoswell Park Cancer Instituteen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationCancer Council Victoriaen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationVictoria Universityen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationInstitute for Social Marketingen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of South Carolinaen_UK
dc.contributor.affiliationUniversity of Nottinghamen_UK
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Reviewen_UK
local.rioxx.authorBorland, Ron|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorWilson, Nicholas|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorFong, Geoffrey T|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorHammond, David|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorCummings, K Michael|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorYong, Hua-Hie|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorHosking, Warwick|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorHastings, Gerard|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorThrasher, James F|en_UK
local.rioxx.authorMcNeill, Ann|en_UK
local.rioxx.projectInternal Project|University of Stirling|
local.rioxx.filenameTob Control - Impact of graphic and text warnings.pdfen_UK
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles

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