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Appears in Collections:Aquaculture eTheses
Title: Oilseed Meals as Dietary Protein Sources for Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)
Authors: Agbo, Nelson W.
Supervisor(s): Jauncey, Kim
Keywords: soybean meal
cottonseed meal
groundnut cake
groundnut husk
nile tilapia
growth performance
feed utilisation
alternate protein sources
ghanaian oilseed meals
cost-effectiveness of feed production
Issue Date: 2008
Publisher: University of Stirling
Abstract: Abstract One of the major problems facing aquaculture in Ghana is the non-availability of quality and affordable fish feeds. The present study investigated the nutritional suitability and cost-effectiveness of some Ghanaian oilseed by-products, soybean meal (Glycine spp), cottonseed meal (Gossypium spp), groundnut cake (Arachis hypogaea L.) and groundnut husk, as alternative protein sources to fishmeal (FM) in the diet of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). The oilseed meals were used individually, as mixtures, as mixtures enriched with methionine and mixtures detoxified by heat processing (autoclaving) and/or addition of supplements (viz. phytase and ferrous sulphate) intended to reduce levels of the most important antinutritional factors (ANFs). Diets, containing the oilseed meals at inclusion levels from 25% to 75% dietary protein, were formulated to be isonitrogenous (320, isolipidic (100 and isoenergetic (18 KJ.g-1) and fed to juvenile Nile tilapia at 4-10% of their body weight for a period of eight weeks. Proximate analysis showed that soybean meal (SBM), cottonseed meal (CSM), groundnut cake (GNC) and groundnut husk (GNH) had 500.3, 441.4, 430.5 and 205.6 crude protein, 38.2, 89.5, 12.8 and 89.2 crude fibre and 20.19, 19.61, 23.17 and 22.18 kJ.g-1 gross energy respectively. Generally the oilseed meals had good essential amino acid (EAA) profiles with the exception of GNH. The EAA profile of SBM compared very well with FM but methionine and threonine were low (0.73 and 1.50 % of protein respectively) and the same was true for CSM and GNC with even lower levels. Analyzed ANFs in SBM, CSM, GNC and GNH were 17.54, 31.64, 14.86 and 3.99 phytic acid, 14.09, 1.24 and 2.34 trypsin inhibitors and 5.80, 6.50, 8.01 and 10.08 saponin respectively and in CSM 5.6 gossypol. Nutrient digestibility of these oilseed proteins suggested that Nile tilapia may be able to utilize SBM, CSM and GNC efficiently as dietary protein sources due to high apparent protein digestibility of 94.50%, 84.93% and 90.01% respectively. However, GNH may not be suitable because of very low apparent protein digestibility (27.67%). These protein sources when used individually were shown to cause depressed growth and feed efficiency when substituting more than 50% of the FM protein in diets. This may be attributed to high levels of ANFs, high fibre content and poor EAA profile. However, the use of mixtures of these meals was found to be marginally more effective than that of single sources. This may have been as a result of lower levels of ANFs and improvement in essential amino acid profile due to mixing. Supplementing the mixtures with methionine led to improvement in feed utilization but without significantly improving the nutritive value compared with FM. Heat processing was effective in reducing heat labile trypsin inhibitors in SBM, CSM and GNC by almost 80%, but not phytic acid and saponins, which remained virtually unaffected. Use of meals detoxified by heat processing with/without supplements at 50% inclusion improved growth and feed utilization compared to the unprocessed meals and performance was generally not significantly different from FM. Cost effectiveness analysis revealed that diets containing single feedstuffs or mixtures, particularly those containing equal proportions of oilseed meals and higher proportion of CSM replacing between 50% - 75% FM protein, were more profitable than FM diet. Similarly, the use of heat processed meals at 50% replacement of FM protein yielded greater profit than all other diets including the FM diet. However, essential amino acid supplementation of the meals was less profitable compared to the control. Generally, fish fed diets with oilseed meals would take longer to attain harvest size compared with FM and this could lead to an increase in production costs or a decrease in the number of production cycles which could be achieved within a year. It can be concluded that there is nutritional and economic justification for using SBM, CSM and GNC as partial replacement for FM in diets of Nile tilapia. Based on growth performance, nutrient utilization and economic benefits the diet with heat processed oilseed meal mixtures (containing equal proportions of 16.67% each) at 50% inclusion has the best prospects for replacing FM protein in diets of O. niloticus.
Type: Thesis or Dissertation
Affiliation: School of Natural Sciences

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