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Appears in Collections:Aquaculture eTheses
Title: Development potential and financial viability of fish farming in Ghana
Authors: Asmah, Ruby
Supervisor(s): Muir, James F.
Little, David C.
Keywords: Aquaculture development potential in Ghana
Financial viability of fish farming in Ghana
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Ghana
Tilapia market potential Ghana
Aquaculture development policy Ghana
Overview of fish farming in Ghana
Potential for cage farm development in Ghana
Issue Date: 5-Aug-2008
Publisher: University of Stirling
Abstract: The potential for aquaculture development to make up for an annual 400,000mt shortfall in domestic fish supply was investigated. This involved an overview of the sector to determine its trends and operations and identifying strengths and constraints, a financial viability assessment of the sector, based on mode and levels of operation of existing farms, an assessment of the market and trade for cultured fish with a focus on Oreochromis niloticus, and finally, a GIS approach to update and reassess the potential for aquaculture development in Ghana. Data were obtained from both primary and secondary sources, the former, via fish farmer, dealers and consumer questionnaire surveys. Results of the study showed that interests in fish farming continue to grow with an overall annual average growth rate of 16% since 2000. The existing farms, 1300 in number were however very small with a mean farm size of 0.36ha and a median 0.06ha of which commercial farms accounted for less than 3%. Based on sizes, mode of operation and levels of input and output, five subsistence farm types were identified. Mean production from these pond-based farms ranged from 1436kg/ha/yr- to 4,423kg/ha/yr while that of a medium sized intensive commercial pond farm was 45,999kg/ha/yr. Commercial farming accounted for about 75% of 2006 aquaculture production. The main strength identified was the growing interest in both commercial and non-commercial fish farming and the main constraints were lack of quality seed, low levels of technical support and of knowledge in fish farming practices among non-commercial farmers. Net profits of commercial farms ranged from GH¢ 3,341 (US$ 3480)/ha/yr to GH¢ 51,444 (US$ 53,587)/ha/yr with payback from 1 to 4yrs, IRR at 35% to 105% and NPV from GH¢ 5,898 to GH¢ 236,412. By contrast, only two of the five non-commercial farm types made positive net returns ranging, from GH¢158 to GH¢1100/ha/yr, with minimum payback period of 14yrs, NPVs of less than 1 and the best IRR being just 4%, when initial capital requirements are full costed. Uncosted family labour inputs and negligible land opportunity costs improved viabilities for two farm types, where net returns/ha/yr increased by more than 50%, minimum payback dropped to 2 years, NPV from GH¢ 4839 to GH¢ 9330 and minimum IRR of 45%. Main constraints identified as affecting the profitability of subsistence farming were the relatively low prices of fish and the low levels of output which could be improved through better farming practices. From the market survey, a huge market potential for tilapia was identified with a current supply deficit of 41,000mt. The most preferred sizes by consumers and with potentially good market price for traders were those weighing at least 200g. For dealers, trading in cultured fish was found to be more profitable than trading wild capture tilapia because of lower wholesaler prices, gross profit margins were GH¢ 0.49/kg and GH¢ 0.25/kg respectively. Preference for tilapia was influenced by taste, availability, and its perceived health benefit. A key constraint to the sector was poor post-harvest handling and preservation of the fish resulting in shorter shelf life. From the GIS study, 2% (3,692 km2) of available land area was identified as very suitable for subsistence and about 0.2% (313.8km2) for commercial farming. A further 97.4% and 84.0% were identified as suitable for subsistence and commercial farming respectively. Areas with potential for cage culture were also identified, which were largely in the southern and mid-sections of the country. The overall conclusions are that based on natural resource requirements, market potential and financial viability, Ghana has the potential to totally make up the shortfall in domestic fish supply through aquaculture production. The current 400,000mt shortfall in domestic fish production can be achieved by 2020 by increasing overall aquaculture production by 60% per annum.
Type: Thesis or Dissertation
Affiliation: School of Natural Sciences

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