|Appears in Collections:||Aquaculture eTheses|
|Title:||Interaction of immunostimulants and stress on innate defence mechanisms of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss|
|Publisher:||University of Stirling|
|Abstract:||This study investigated the use of non-specific immunostimulants to alleviate stress-mediated suppression of defence mechanisms and subsequent susceptibility to bacterial pathogens in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). One yeast (1-3),)1-6)-β-glucan and a bacterial peptidoglycan were selected as immunostimulants from a panel of test substances on the basis of enhanced intracellular superoxide generation by kidney macrophages stimulated in vitro. Kidney macrophage effector activity was not affected after 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks of in-feed treatment with 0.05% or 5% of glucan or peptidoglycan. However, production of bactericidal superoxide by inflammatory peritoneal macrophages did increase significantly after four weeks of oral treatment with 0.05% peptidoglycan. Although a single confinement of fish (93% reduction of water volume for five minutes) caused a physiological stress response, as indicated by hyperglycaemia in plasma, kidney and inflammatory macrophage activities were only affected after six daily confinements. Phagocytosis, intracellular superoxide production and killing of Aeromonas salmonicida in vitro by kidney macrophages were significantly reduced. Conversely, production of extracellular superoxide, which may be associated with damage to self, was enhanced. Peritoneal macrophages displayed a similar but less marked respiratory burst response after repeated confinement. Some of the alterations in macrophage function caused by daily confinement were prevented by feeding 0.05% peptidoglycan four weeks before the first confinement. The increase in kidney macrophage extracellular superoxide production caused by repeated confinement was significantly alleviated by in-feed peptidoglycan. Similarly, the decrease in intracellular production by peritoneal macrophages caused by repeated confinement was prevented by in-feed treatment with peptidoglycan. Neither peptidoglycan nor repetitive confinement had any effect on complement lytic activity. These results indicate that dietary peptidoglycan was able to reduce, by regulating macrophage function, the impact of stress on certain bactericidal defences and potential damage to self. However, there was no significant difference in the persistence of viable A. salmonicida in the spleen or blood of infected fish in any of the experimental treatments.|
|Type:||Thesis or Dissertation|
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