Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1893/25516
Appears in Collections:Economics Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Evaluation of a web-based intervention to reduce antibiotic prescribing for LRTI in six European countries: Quantitative process analysis of the GRACE/INTRO randomised controlled trial
Authors: Yardley, Lucy
Douglas, Elaine
Anthierens, Sibyl
Tonkin-Crine, Sarah
O'Reilly, Gilly
Stuart, Beth
Geraghty, Adam W A
Arden-Close, Emily
van, der Velden Alike W
Goossens, Herman
Verheij, Theo
Butler, Chris
Francis, Nick A
Little, Paul
Keywords: Prescribing
Antibiotics
Resistance
Questionnaires
Issue Date: 15-Nov-2013
Citation: Yardley L, Douglas E, Anthierens S, Tonkin-Crine S, O'Reilly G, Stuart B, Geraghty AWA, Arden-Close E, van der Velden AW, Goossens H, Verheij T, Butler C, Francis NA & Little P (2013) Evaluation of a web-based intervention to reduce antibiotic prescribing for LRTI in six European countries: Quantitative process analysis of the GRACE/INTRO randomised controlled trial, Implementation Science, 8 (1), Art. No.: 134.
Abstract: Background:  To reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance, there is a pressing need for worldwide implementation of effective interventions to promote more prudent prescribing of antibiotics for acute LRTI. This study is a process analysis of the GRACE/INTRO trial of a multifactorial intervention that reduced antibiotic prescribing for acute LRTI in six European countries. The aim was to understand how the interventions were implemented and to examine effects of the interventions on general practitioners' (GPs') and patients' attitudes. Methods:  GPs were cluster randomised to one of three intervention groups or a control group. The intervention groups received web-based training in either use of the C-reactive protein (CRP) test, communication skills and use of a patient booklet, or training in both. GP attitudes were measured before and after the intervention using constructs from the Theory of Planned Behaviour and a Website Satisfaction Questionnaire. Effects of the interventions on patients were assessed by a post-intervention questionnaire assessing patient enablement, satisfaction with the consultation, and beliefs about the risks and need for antibiotics. Results:  GPs in all countries and intervention groups had very positive perceptions of the intervention and the web-based training, and felt that taking part had helped them to reduce prescribing. All GPs perceived reducing prescribing as more important and less risky following the intervention, and GPs in the communication groups reported increased confidence to reduce prescribing. Patients in the communication groups who received the booklet reported the highest levels of enablement and satisfaction and had greater awareness that antibiotics could be unnecessary and harmful. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the interventions should be broadly acceptable to both GPs and patients, as well as feasible to roll out more widely across Europe. There are also some indications that they could help to engender changes in GP and patient attitudes that will be helpful in the longer-term, such as increased awareness of the potential disadvantages of antibiotics and increased confidence to manage LRTI without them. Given the positive effects of the booklet on patient beliefs and attitudes, it seems logical to extend the use of the patient booklet to all patients.
DOI Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-8-134
Rights: © Yardley et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013 This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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