Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1893/24346
Appears in Collections:Senior Management Team Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: Episodic memory and age-related deficits in inhibitory effectiveness
Authors: MacLeod, Malcolm
Saunders, Jo
Contact Email: malcolm.macleod@stir.ac.uk
Issue Date: 2017
Citation: MacLeod M & Saunders J (2017) Episodic memory and age-related deficits in inhibitory effectiveness, Experimental Aging Research, 13 (1), pp. 34-54.
Abstract: Background/Study Context: Age-related deficits in inhibitory control are well established in some areas of cognition, but evidence remains inconclusive in episodic memory. Two studies examined the extent to which a loss in inhibitory effectiveness—as measured by the extent of retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF)—is only detectable in (1) the very old, and (2) that a failure to control for noninhibitory mechanisms can lead to the misinterpretation of intact inhibition in episodic memory in the very old.  Methods: In Study 1, the authors employed a modified independent cue test—to provide as clean a measure of inhibitory functioning as possible—and examined whether there were significant differences in inhibitory effectiveness between younger-old (60–64years), old (65–69years), and older-old (70–74years) adults. In Study 2, the authors directly manipulated the contribution of output interference (a noninhibitory mechanism) to RIF in a group of young adults (18–34years), old (61–69years), and older-old (70–85years) adults.  Results: In Study 1, both younger-old (60–64years) and old (65–69years) adults demonstrated RIF on the modified independent cue test but older-old (70–74years) adults did not. In Study 2, all age groups demonstrated RIF in conditions where output interference was promoted. However, when output interference was controlled, only the young (18–34years) and old (61–69years) age groups demonstrated RIF; the older-old (70–85years) age group did not.  Conclusions: The findings suggest that inhibitory functioning remains intact in older adults under the age of 70years. However, a misleading impression can be formed of inhibitory effectiveness in adults over the age of 70 when memory tests do not exclude the use of noninhibitory processes, such as output interference. These two issues may partly explain the previous inconclusive findings regarding inhibitory deficits in normal aging.
DOI Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0361073X.2017.1258220
Rights: This item has been embargoed for a period. During the embargo please use the Request a Copy feature at the foot of the Repository record to request a copy directly from the author. You can only request a copy if you wish to use this work for your own research or private study. This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis Group in Experimental Aging Research on 09 Jan 2017, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/0361073X.2017.1258220

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