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Appears in Collections:Aquaculture eTheses
Title: Approaches to DIVA vaccination for fish using infectious salmon anaemia and koi herpesvirus disease as models
Authors: Monaghan, Sean J.
Supervisor(s): Adams, Alexandra
Thompson, Kimberly
Keywords: DIVA
Marker vaccine
Koi herpesvirus
Cyprinid herpesvirus 3
Infectious salmon anaemia
differentiating infected from vaccinated animal
Issue Date: 30-Apr-2013
Publisher: University of Stirling
Abstract: The expanding aquaculture industry continues to encounter major challenges in the form of highly contagious aquatic viruses. Control and eradication measures targeting the most lethal and economically damaging virus-induced diseases, some of which are notifiable, currently involve ‘stamping out’ policies and surveillance strategies. These approaches to disease control are performed through mass-culling followed by restriction in the movement of fish and fish products, resulting in considerable impacts on trade. Although effective, these expensive, ethically complex measures threaten the sustainability and reputation of the aquatic food sector, and could possibly be reduced by emulating innovative vaccination strategies that have proved pivotal in maintaining the success of the terrestrial livestock industry. DIVA ‘differentiating infected from vaccinated animal’ strategies provide a basis to vaccinate and contain disease outbreaks without compromising ‘disease-free’ status, as antibodies induced specifically to infection can be distinguished from those induced in vaccinated animals. Various approaches were carried out in this study to assess the feasibility of marker/DIVA vaccination for two of the most important disease threats to the global Atlantic salmon and common carp/koi industries, i.e. infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) and koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD), respectively. Antibody responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), following immunisation with an ISA vaccine, administered with foreign immunogenic marker antigens (tetanus toxoid (TT), fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)) were assessed by antigen-specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Although antibodies were induced to some markers, these were unreliable and may have been affected by temperature and smoltification. Detectable antibodies to ISAV antigen were also largely inconsistent despite low serum dilutions of 1/20 being employed for serological analysis. The poor antibody responses of salmon to the inactivated ISA vaccine suggested that DIVA vaccination is not feasible for ISA. A similar approach for KHV, utilising green fluorescent protein (GFP) as the marker, similarly failed to induce sufficiently detectable antibody responses in vaccinated carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). However, as high anti-KHV antibody titres were obtained with an inactivated KHV vaccine (≥1/3200), alternative approaches were carried out to assess the feasibility of DIVA vaccination for carp. Investigations of early KHV pathogenesis in vivo and antigen expression kinetics in vitro (0-10 days post infection (dpi)) provided valuable data for the diagnostics necessary for DIVA surveillance strategies. Following viral infection, molecular methods were shown to be the most effective approach for early detection of KHV infected fish prior to sero-conversion, during which time antibodies are not detectable. An experimental immersion challenge with KHV, however, revealed complications in molecular detection during early infection. The KHV DNA was detected in external biopsies of skin and gills, but also internally in gut and peripheral blood leukocytes ≤ 6 hours post infection (hpi), suggesting rapid virus uptake by the host. The gills and gut appeared to be possible portals of entry, supported by detection of DNA in cells by in situ hybridisation (ISH). However, many false negative results using organ biopsies occurred during the first 4 dpi. The gills were the most reliable lethal biopsy for KHV detection by various polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, with a PCR targeting a glycoprotein-gene (ORF56) and a real-time PCR assay being the most sensitive of the 7 methods investigated. Importantly, non-lethal mucus samples reduced the number of false negative results obtained by all KHV PCR assays during the earliest infection stages with large levels of viral DNA being detected in mucus (up to 80,000 KHV DNA genomic equivalents 200 μL-1). KHV DNA was consistently detected in the mucus as a consequence of virus being shed from the skin. Determining the expression kinetics of different viral structural proteins can be useful for DIVA serological tests. Analysis of KHV antigen expression in tissues by immunohistochemistry and indirect fluorescent antibody test was inconclusive, therefore 2 novel semi-quantitative immunofluorescence techniques were developed for determining KHV antigen expression kinetics in susceptible cell lines. During the course of KHV infection in vitro, a greater abundance of capsid antigen was produced in infected cells compared to a glycoprotein antigen (ORF56), as determined by detection with antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The capsid antigen was characterised as a ~100 kDa protein by SDS-PAGE and identified as a product of KHV ORF84 by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). This antigen was subsequently detected in the serum of >25% of KHV infected/exposed carp (6/17), as well as in carp vaccinated with a live attenuated vaccine (3/4), but not with an inactivated vaccine (0/7), by Western blot making it a potential DIVA target for an inactivated vaccine. Attempts were made to improve the sensitivity of KHV serological testing by taking advantage of recombinant proteins specific for KHV (CyHV-3), rORF62 and rORF68 and eliminating any interference by cross-reacting antibodies to carp pox (CyHV-1). These proteins successfully reacted with anti-KHV antibodies. The feasibility of DIVA strategies for KHVD was determined using these recombinant antigens to coat ELISA plates. Differential antibody responses were detected from carp sera to an internal virus tegument protein (rORF62) and external region of a transmembrane protein (rORF68). Fish vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine produced significantly lower antibody responses to rORF62 than to rORF68, whereas infected, exposed and live attenuated vaccinated fish recognised both proteins allowing differentiation between vaccinated and infected carp. However, the sensitivity of the assay was limited, possibly by high levels of natural antibodies detected at the relatively low serum dilutions (1/200) used. As the capsid antigen (ORF84) and tegument protein (ORF62) are derived from internal KHV structural proteins, they induce non-neutralising antibodies, which may be useful for DIVA strategies. Such antibodies are longer lasting than neutralising antibodies and often comprise the majority of fish anti-viral antibodies. This was noted in a fish surviving experimental challenge, which had an antibody titre of 1/10,000, but neutralising titre of 1/45. Such antigens may therefore hold potential for developing effective serological diagnostic tests for KHV and provide the potential for DIVA strategies against KHVD. Natural antibodies will, however, continue to present a challenge to the development of sensitive and reliable KHV serological tests, and hence the application of DIVA strategies.
Type: Thesis or Dissertation

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