Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1893/1156
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Social Sciences Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: The development of the therapeutic community in correctional establishments: a comparative, retrospective account of the 'democratic' Maxwell Jones TC and the 'hierarchical' concept-based TC in prison
Authors: Vandevelde, Stijn
Broekaert, Eric
Yates, Rowdy
Kooyman, Martien
Contact Email: p.r.yates@stir.ac.uk
Keywords: therapeutic communities
prisons
Issue Date: Mar-2004
Publisher: Sage
Citation: Vandevelde S, Broekaert E, Yates R & Kooyman M (2004) The development of the therapeutic community in correctional establishments: a comparative, retrospective account of the 'democratic' Maxwell Jones TC and the 'hierarchical' concept-based TC in prison, International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 50 (1), pp. 66-79.
Abstract: Background: The corrections-based therapeutic community (TC) is one of the most described treatment modalities for (substance abusing) incarcerated offenders. The origins and development of the therapeutic community have been traced back to two independent traditions: the American hierarchical concept-based TC and the British “democratic” Maxwell Jones-type TC. Both branches have developed independently, targeting different people and tackling diverse problems. Aims: To demonstrate that there are clear and undeniable similarities between the ‘two’ prison-based therapeutic communities. Method: A comparative historical review of the literature and a critical discussion and comparison. Results: The links between the democratic and hierarchic therapeutic communities are summarized under five headings: social learning and behavioural modification; permissiveness and modeling; democracy and hierarchy; communalism and community as method; reality testing and ‘acting as if’. Conclusions: The ‘two’ correction-based therapeutic communities are on converging pathways. Far from being oppositional models, they can be regarded as being complementary.
Type: Journal Article
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1893/1156
DOI Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020764004040954
Rights: The final, definitive version of this article has been published in the journal, International Journal of Social Psychiatry, Volume 50, No. 1, 2004, © Sage Publications, Inc, 2004 by Sage Publications, Inc. at the International Journal of Social Psychiatry page: http://isp.sagepub.com/ on Sage Journals Online: http://online.sagepub.com/; Published in the International Journal of Social Psychiatry. Copyright: Sage and the International Journal of Social Psychiatry.
Affiliation: Ghent University
Ghent University
Sociology/Social Pol&Criminology
Therapeutic Community Emiliehoeve, Netherlands

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