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Appears in Collections:Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Journal Articles
Peer Review Status: Refereed
Title: The Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Authors: Tappin, David
Bauld, Linda
Tannahill, Carol
de, Caestecker Linda
Radley, Andrew
McConnachie, Alex
Boyd, Kathleen
Briggs, Andrew
Grant, Liz
Cameron, Alan
MacAskill, Susan
Sinclair, Lesley
Friel, Brenda
Coleman, Tim
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Keywords: Intervention
Maternal and child health
Issue Date: 20-Jul-2012
Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd
Citation: Tappin D, Bauld L, Tannahill C, de Caestecker L, Radley A, McConnachie A, Boyd K, Briggs A, Grant L, Cameron A, MacAskill S, Sinclair L, Friel B & Coleman T (2012) The Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial, Trials, 13 (113).
Abstract: Background: Seventy percent of women in Scotland have at least one baby, making pregnancy an opportunity to help most young women quit smoking before their own health is irreparably compromised. By quitting during pregnancy their infants will be protected from miscarriage and still birth as well as low birth weight, asthma, attention deficit disorder and adult cardiovascular disease. In the UK, the NICE guidelines: 'How to stop smoking in pregnancy and following childbirth' (June 2010) highlighted that little evidence exists in the literature to confirm the efficacy of financial incentives to help pregnant smokers to quit. Its first research recommendation was to determine: Within a UK context, are incentives an acceptable, effective and cost-effective way to help pregnant women who smoke to quit? Design and methods: This study is a phase II exploratory individually randomized controlled trial comparing standard care for pregnant smokers with standard care plus the additional offer of financial voucher incentives to engage with specialist cessation services and/or to quit smoking during pregnancy. Participants (n = 600) will be pregnant smokers identified at maternity booking who, when contacted by specialist cessation services, agree to having their details passed to the NHS Smokefree Pregnancy Study Helpline to discuss the trial. The NHS Smokefree Pregnancy Study Helpline will be responsible for telephone consent and follow-up in late pregnancy. The primary outcome will be self reported smoking in late pregnancy verified by cotinine measurement. An economic evaluation will refine cost data collection and assess potential cost-effectiveness while qualitative research interviews with clients and health professionals will assess the level of acceptance of this form of incentive payment. The research questions are: What is the likely therapeutic efficacy? Are incentives potentially cost-effective? Is individual randomization an efficient trial design without introducing outcome bias? Can incentives be introduced in a way that is feasible and acceptable? Discussion: This phase II trial will establish a workable design to reduce the risks associated with a future definitive phase III multicenter randomized controlled trial and establish a framework to assess the costs and benefits of financial incentives to help pregnant smokers to quit. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN87508788
Type: Journal Article
DOI Link:
Rights: © 2012 Tappin et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Affiliation: Institute for Social Marketing
Institute for Social Marketing
Glasgow Centre for Population Health
NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde
NHS Tayside
University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow
NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde
Queen Mother's Hospital, Glasgow
Institute for Social Marketing
NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde
University of Nottingham

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